Ergogenic Aids Essay

Submitted By TehNinja
Words: 1992
Pages: 8

Assignment 1
Assignment 1

FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY & ERGOGENIC AIDS IN SPORT
“Research on athlete’s functional anatomy and the ways in which they enhanced their performance with ergogenic aids.”
FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY & ERGOGENIC AIDS IN SPORT
“Research on athlete’s functional anatomy and the ways in which they enhanced their performance with ergogenic aids.”
Geoffrey Chew 12G
Geoffrey Chew 12G

Contents
Question 1 1
Question 2 2
Question 3 4
Question 4 6

Question 1 Lance Armstrong | Macrostructure | Microstructure | Cycling is a sport that primarily uses the upper leg muscle group which contains the quadriceps and the hamstrings to turn the pedals on a bike. Cyclists prefer to have lean bodies to maintain a good weight to power ratio. To achieve this Armstrong adopted a primarily continuous training program. Continuous training allowed for the building of larger Type I (slow-twitch) fibers. Since Type I fibers are considerably smaller than Type II (fast twitch) fibers, Armstrong would acquire muscles that specialized in long duration, sub-maximal effort activities such as cycling, without gaining as much weight, compared to if he gained the same amount of Type II muscle fibers, hence maintaining a lean body and a good weight to power ratio. | To maintain sub-maximal effort for long durations of time, usually 4-6 hours straight, a cyclist must have a large percentage of Type I muscle fibers (80%) as they are more fatigue resistant. As the name suggests slow-twitch muscles contract slowly, allowing sufficient time for the myosin cross-bridges to oscillate over the actin filaments and grab hold before releasing and sliding back past. Continuous training can improve the strength of these Type I fibers without any hypertrophy by increasing the number, efficiency and firing rate of the motor units. | BEN JOHNSON | Macrostructure | Microstructure | Sprinters generate the speed and power they need, primarily from their upper leg muscles which include the quadriceps and the hamstrings. Since the greater cross-sectional area of a muscle results in the muscle being stronger and more powerful, Johnson would want to build larger muscles to gain strength and power to assist in his 100m sprint races. Popular methods used to increase muscle size is intensive resistance training and plyometric training. Johnson’s training program would include him lifting weights that are 70% of his one rep max and performing high intensity and highly explosive exercises. This results in the increase of size and strength of his Type II fibers, hence increasing the muscles cross-sectional area and the power the muscle can generate. | To achieve the fastest and most powerful muscle contractions, a sprinter must have a large percentage of Type II muscle fibers (80%). During the acceleration phase of the 100m sprint, Johnsons muscles would be contracting slowly, generating large amounts of force for acceleration as the slow contractions allow sufficient time for the myosin cross-bridges to oscillate over and grab onto the actin filaments. During the upright phase, the myosin cross-bridges are oscillating over the actin filaments so fast that they cannot attach and generate much force. Resistance training can improve the strength of these Type II muscle fibers by increasing the number, efficiency and firing rate of the motor units, further resistance training can result in hypertrophy of the muscle. |
Question 2 Lance Armstrong | Force/Velocity | Force/Length | Beginning Of Event – Maximum/Slow | Beginning Of Event –Maximum/Short | As Armstrong starts a race, he has to slowly turn his pedals faster and faster until he reaches a comfortable cruising speed. A large force must be generated to turn the heavy gear ratios that the professional cyclists use. To generate this power, Armstrong’s muscles have to begin by contracting slowly, allowing the myosin cross-bridges to oscillate and grab hold of the actin filaments. This…