Functions Of Functionalism

Submitted By Bakali1
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Pages: 19

Name of sociologist | What they said | Functionalism | Functionalist talk about the organic analogy which means that the society is like the body if any organ in the body stops working than the body won’t work same as the society if main institutions don’t work than the society will break down.According to functionalist education has 5 functions * Socialisation- particularistic which is socialising children into the norms of the house such as when the bedtime is etc. universalistic is socialising children into the norms and values of the society. * Teaching specialist skills- teaching children skills that will be useful in the future to get them a job etc. * Role allocation- status is achieved so whoever works hard than they will get a role accordingly. Also, people are good at different things and schools and education tries to find that out and help. * Value consensus – functionalist believe that it’s important for people to have a broad outlook in life and education helps to achieve that. * Social mobility – moving up and down the social class structure. So education offers the opportunity to move up in social class. | Emile Durkheim | He identified two roles of education:Social solidarity – which is people need to feel part of the community and education does that by transmitting culture and its shared values and beliefs. Teaching specialist skills – so the children are ready to meet the needs of tomorrow. | Talcott parsons | He said that education creates a bridge between family and society.It also has a function of role allocation suitable for.He also talks about socialisation. That education performs secondary socialisation. | Davis and Moore | They also talk about selection and role allocation. They argue that most talented people fill the most important role in society. Education helps identify what people can do. | New right | New right’s is perspective usually associated with the conservative political perspective. The new right are similar in many ways to functionalists: * They believe that some people are naturally more intelligent than others. * They also believe that education runs on a meritocratic principle of open competition and preparing young people for future work roles. * They believe education should socialise pupils into shared values.The new right sees two important roles for the state: * The state should publish inspection reports and league tables of school s exams results. * The state should also impose a single national curriculum, so pupils share the same cultural heritage. | Chubb and Moe | They argue that the American state education has failed. They believed that it should be opened up to market forces of supply and demand.They make the following claims: * Disadvantaged groups – the lower classes and ethnic minorities have been served poorly by the state education. It has failed to create equal opportunity. * State education fails to because it fails to produce pupils with the skills needed by the economy.Chubb and Moe call for the introduction of a market system in which parents have some control in the way schools are run. They say this would allow schools to meet consumer needs. Chubb and Moe propose a system in which parents receive a voucher to spend on education in the school of their choice. This would force schools to get better as their income would depend on customers. | Marxists | Marxists see society and education based on class division and capitalist exploitation.Whereby, the working class serve the needs of the ruling class. | Althusser | Talks about the two apparatuses: * Repressive state apparatus: - which maintain the rule of the rich by force or threat of it. Police, courts and the army. * Ideological state apparatus: - which maintain rule of the rich by controlling people’s ideas, values and beliefs. ISA’s include religion, mass media and the education system.Althusser argues that the education system has 2 important