GRT1 Task 4 Essay

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Biochemistry GRT1
Task 4: Metabolism
Enzyme Induced Fit Model and Activation Energy
Role of Enzymes:

Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts during a biochemical process. Catalysts are non-changing enzymes that can increase or decrease activation energy to accelerate or slow down a biochemical reaction without using additional energy.
Enzymes break down molecules in our body faster than they would normally break down without enzymes.
On the biochemical level, enzymes work at precise temperatures and pH levels. When the temperature goes up, enzyme activity speeds up. When temperatures decrease, enzyme activity slows down. If an enzyme is at too high of a temperature, it stops functioning. Stomach enzymes function in a more
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The protons (H+) from these products move across the mitochondrial membrane to create a differential charge which causes ADP to be phosphorylated by ATP synthase and create additional ATP (approximately 34). Ultimately, 1 glucose molecule going through glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain can make about 38 ATP’s.
(Energy III, 2009)
Defect Preventing ADP from Converting to ATP
Hypothetically, if the enzyme citrate synthase is defective, citrate would not be available to react to the next enzyme (aconitase) to produce isocitrate and other substrates in the citric cycle. The Krebs cycle would come to a halt and the by-products ATP, NADH and FADH2 would not be produced. Without NADH and FADH2, phosphorylation would not be triggered in the electron transport chain, and in effect, ATP proliferation would not continue.
(Ophardt, 2003)
Role of Coenzyme Q10
As part of the electron transport chain, the role of Q10 is to help with the transfer of electrons from NADH and FADH2 across the mitochondrial cell membrane.
When this transfer occurs, additional energy is generated by the hydrogen ions released to the intermembrane.
The build-up of hydrogen ions in the intermembrane forces the hydrogen ions to move back into the matrix through ATP synthase.
The re-introduction of hydrogen ion into the matrix triggers oxidative phosphorylation. This causes ADP to convert to ATP.
(Sanders, 2013)
Energy III-Cellular