January 27, 2014
Howard Gardner decided that IQ tests were not the only way to measure intelligence. Gardner views intelligence as “an ability or set of abilities that is used to solve problems or fashion products that are of consequence in a particular cultural setting” . Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences was based on this theory. Gardner recognizes eight intelligences that can be used to solve or produce culturally significant products. These eight intelligences are musical, bodily/kinesthetic, spatial, linguistic or verbal, logical/ mathematical, naturalistic, intrapersonal, and interpersonal. He believes there are eight bell curves not just one to measure intelligence, one for each intelligence type . Gardner believes that each person has talents in all these areas, but some come easier or are more developed than others. He states that “Someone could be a brilliant mathematician, but inhabit the lowest percentiles of interpersonal intelligence”.
Gardner based his lists of multiple intelligences on whether they can be measured neuropsychologically. According to Gardner since individuals have multiple neural modules, they also have multiple intelligences. Another criterion for his multiple intelligences view is the existence of savants or prodigies with extraordinary talents in one area. Savants are individuals which exhibit astonishing abilities in one area, usually visual arts, musical performance, or mathematics, but score with low ability in other areas. Prodigies are individuals that score extraordinarily high in one area usually, at an early age, but they are normal in every other area of intelligence. The third criterion for selecting intelligences is its development from childhood to adulthood. Children learn and develop at different rates. This further leads to the notion of multiple intelligences. According to Kowalski and Westen, Mozart was able to write music before he could read .
Linguistic or verbal intelligence is the ability to use and understand words effectively. Those high in this intelligence are often highly developed in the literal and figurative meaning of words. They have highly developed oral and written communication skills. They usually learn better by reading or listening to material. They usually are adept at learning foreign languages. They have the ability to express themselves better through the written or oral form. People high in linguistic intelligence are usually writers, politicians, poets, lawyers, or public speakers. Famous people high in linguistic ability are Robert Frost, William Shakespeare, Mayo Angelou, Barak Obama, and J.K. Rowling. People who like to read, write, likes board games, are good in spelling, and like to speak in public are thought to be high in linguistic intelligence.
People that score high in musical intelligence are good in thinking in patterns, rhythm, and sounds. They usually enjoy singing and playing musical instruments, they are good at recognizing musical patterns and tones, and have a good memory for songs and melodies. Careers people choose who score high in musical intelligence are singers, songwriters, musician, and conductors. Famous people who are musically intelligent are Beethoven, Michael Jackson, and Mozart. People who score high in musical intelligence learn well using music, ca become emotionally involved in music, and usually study more efficiently with music playing in the background.
Scoring high in the logical mathematical intelligence portion of the tests include people such as Warren Buffet, Bill Gates, Albert Einstein, and Thomas Edison. These people have a strong ability to carry out mathematical equations, look at ideas logically, and carry out scientific investigations. They excel at strategy games, look for rational explanations, and are good at working out problems.
Jack Hanna, Steve Irwin, and Charles Darwin are individuals