Essay on Gas and Kelvin Temp

Submitted By ayeexdanie
Words: 1566
Pages: 7

1) Matter and Energy:
Matter: Anything that takes up space (volume) and has mass (measurable density)

✓ Element:

- Made up of same type of atom

- Building blocks of matter

- Elements can combine and get bigger

- Simplest form of matter

- Cannot be broken down

- Diatomic Element: Element that is naturally paired = H O F I N Br Cl

✓ Compound:

- 2 or more different types of atoms/elements

- Chemically combined (bonded)

- Difficult to break apart

- Same definite ratio

- Properties of each individual part undergo a reaction to become another substance.

✓ Mixture:

- Random organization of elements and/or compounds

- Physical combination (unbounded)

- Easier to separate

- Heterogeneous: Non-uniform, separate. Ex: Sand & water, sugar & water

- Homogeneous: Uniform, stirred. Ex: saltwater, Kool-Aid

- Separation:

- Filtration: Based on size. Used for heterogeneous mixtures

Ex: Sugar water, sand water

- Evaporation: heat water until boiling. Use for hetero or homo mixture. 100 degrees Celsius = water boils

- Distillation: based on boiling points. Used for liquid mixtures. Alcohol boils first (79 degrees Celsius) water does not boil (100 degrees Celsius). Alcohol passes through condensation tube (liquefies). Distillate pure alcohol.

• Physical Change:

Observable properties; Intensive property not dependant on amount (density, mp, bp); External

Only observable properties can change. Substance looks different, but is still recognizable.

Ex: Ripping Paper: size, shape, texture – physical change.

• Chemical Change:

Observable only through reaction or interaction; Extensive property; Change with amount (weight, height, volume); Internal

All properties change. Substance changes, not recognizable

Ex: Vinegar + Alka Seltzer: Bubbling, fizzing, smoke – chemical change.

➢ Phases of Matter:

✓ Solid:

- Description: Organized, structure, compacted.

- Shape: Definite shape, has edges.

- Volume: Regular solid: length, width, height. Irregular: Water displacement.

- Mobility: Vibrating in fixed positions. Do not move readily. Low mobility.

- Energy: Low energy, limited movement.

- Intermolecular force: High attraction. Strong bonds.

✓ Liquid:

- Description: Fluid, loosely pact, random

- Shape: No definite shape. Takes shape of container.

- Volume: Measurable by lines of cylinder or beaker.

- Mobility: Higher mobility than solid. More space to move.

- Energy: Higher energy

- Intermolecular force: Weaker bonds. Less attraction. More flexible.

✓ Gas:

- Description: Invisible, scattered, waste.

- Shape: No definite shape.

- Volume: Scatters through space, diffusion.

- Mobility: Highest mobility. More space to move.

- Energy: Highest energy.

- Intermolecular force: Weakest bonds. Low attraction.

Energy:

• Heating Curve: Steps that occur when energy is added to a sample at a low temperature.

- Lowest temperature: solid phase.

- 0 degrees Celsius = melting point. Point at which melting begins. Both solid and liquid coexist. Time needed to separate.

- Middle temperature: liquid phase

- 100 degrees Celsius = Boiling point.

- Above boiling point: Gas phase

• Cooling curve:

- Highest temperature: Gas phase.

- 25 degrees Celsius = Condensation. Point at which gas cools to a liquid.

- Lower than condensation point. Liquid phase.

- 15 degrees Celsius = Freezing point. Point at which liquid turns to solid.

- Lowest temperature = solid phase.

•…