Matter: Anything that takes up space (volume) and has mass (measurable density)
- Made up of same type of atom
- Building blocks of matter
- Elements can combine and get bigger
- Simplest form of matter
- Cannot be broken down
- Diatomic Element: Element that is naturally paired = H O F I N Br Cl
- 2 or more different types of atoms/elements
- Chemically combined (bonded)
- Difficult to break apart
- Same definite ratio
- Properties of each individual part undergo a reaction to become another substance.
- Random organization of elements and/or compounds
- Physical combination (unbounded)
- Easier to separate
- Heterogeneous: Non-uniform, separate. Ex: Sand & water, sugar & water
- Homogeneous: Uniform, stirred. Ex: saltwater, Kool-Aid
- Filtration: Based on size. Used for heterogeneous mixtures
Ex: Sugar water, sand water
- Evaporation: heat water until boiling. Use for hetero or homo mixture. 100 degrees Celsius = water boils
- Distillation: based on boiling points. Used for liquid mixtures. Alcohol boils first (79 degrees Celsius) water does not boil (100 degrees Celsius). Alcohol passes through condensation tube (liquefies). Distillate pure alcohol.
• Physical Change:
Observable properties; Intensive property not dependant on amount (density, mp, bp); External
Only observable properties can change. Substance looks different, but is still recognizable.
Ex: Ripping Paper: size, shape, texture – physical change.
• Chemical Change:
Observable only through reaction or interaction; Extensive property; Change with amount (weight, height, volume); Internal
All properties change. Substance changes, not recognizable
Ex: Vinegar + Alka Seltzer: Bubbling, fizzing, smoke – chemical change.
➢ Phases of Matter:
- Description: Organized, structure, compacted.
- Shape: Definite shape, has edges.
- Volume: Regular solid: length, width, height. Irregular: Water displacement.
- Mobility: Vibrating in fixed positions. Do not move readily. Low mobility.
- Energy: Low energy, limited movement.
- Intermolecular force: High attraction. Strong bonds.
- Description: Fluid, loosely pact, random
- Shape: No definite shape. Takes shape of container.
- Volume: Measurable by lines of cylinder or beaker.
- Mobility: Higher mobility than solid. More space to move.
- Energy: Higher energy
- Intermolecular force: Weaker bonds. Less attraction. More flexible.
- Description: Invisible, scattered, waste.
- Shape: No definite shape.
- Volume: Scatters through space, diffusion.
- Mobility: Highest mobility. More space to move.
- Energy: Highest energy.
- Intermolecular force: Weakest bonds. Low attraction.
• Heating Curve: Steps that occur when energy is added to a sample at a low temperature.
- Lowest temperature: solid phase.
- 0 degrees Celsius = melting point. Point at which melting begins. Both solid and liquid coexist. Time needed to separate.
- Middle temperature: liquid phase
- 100 degrees Celsius = Boiling point.
- Above boiling point: Gas phase
• Cooling curve:
- Highest temperature: Gas phase.
- 25 degrees Celsius = Condensation. Point at which gas cools to a liquid.
- Lower than condensation point. Liquid phase.
- 15 degrees Celsius = Freezing point. Point at which liquid turns to solid.
- Lowest temperature = solid phase.