Geary Act Case Study

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The Geary Act was passed by Congress after the Chinese Exclusion Act which halted Chinese Immigration. The Geary Act extended the Chinese Exclusion Acts restrictions and required Chinese Americans to carry certificates of residence. Fong Yue Ting an immigrant laborer born in China to Chinese parents could not become a naturalized U.S. citizen because of these acts. He wanted to continue to live in America, but was unable to get a certificate of residence because he could not provide the “credible white witness” for his certificate. He was arrested and a judge ordered his immediate deportation without a hearing. Ting argued that having to have a “credible white witness” was unfair because he was a Chinese laborer who lived in Chinese parts of town, and his friends were Chinese, he had no white friends that could be this “credible white witness.” His case went all the way to the supreme court, where it was decided that those already in the country could be given an opportunity to challenge a deportation order in a Judicial hearing.
Political Machines are organizations that emerged in urban, often working-class and immigrant neighborhoods. They solicited votes for
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This made it so that segregation by individuals, private businesses, or local governments was okay constitutionally. This led to the Plessy v. Ferguson case, where a New Orleans African American group picked Homer Plessy to sit in a whites-only railroad car. Plessy was arrested, and the appeal of his conviction reached the U.S. Supreme Court. The Court confirmed that a state law providing separate facilities for the two races was fair because it maintained “public peace and good order.” It legalized separate facilities for black and white people as long as they were