Social Interaction: The process by which people act towards or respond to other people.
Social Structure: Complex frame work of social institutions and the social structure practices that make up a society and that governs, organizes, and establishes limits on peoples behavior.
Status: socially defined position in a group or society characteristic by current expectations.
Roles: a set of expected behaviors associated with a give role.
Ascribed Status: social position that you are born with or received involuntary later in life.
Achieved Status: a social position that a person assumes voluntarily as a result of choice, merit, or effort.
Master Status: is the most important status that a person occupies.
Role performance: how a person actually plays a role.
Role Conflict: a situation when incomparable expectations arise from 2 or more social positions that a are held by the same person.
Role Exit: a situation in which people disengage from a social role that has been central to their self identity.
Role Exit Stages
2. Searching for alternatives
3.Turning point to take final actions
4. creating a new identity
Reference Group: an group that individuals use as an evaluator of themselves.
Social groups: any number of people with similar interests, norms, values, and expectations who interact with one another on a regular basis.
Primary Social Groups: is a small inmate group which engages in face to face emotional based interactions for an extended period of time.
Secondary Social Group: is a large impersonal groups engaging in goal oriented relationships for a short time.
Social Network: a series of Social relationships that link an individual to other both directly and indirectly.
Society: Group of people that can be separated from others and have share culture.
Social Institution: Set of organized beliefs and rules that establish how the society meets its needs.
Types of Societies
Gemeinshaft: Close knit community
Gesellschaft: impersonal mass society
Societies over time
Hunters and gathers -little social organization -little equality - small groups - everyone has role
Pastoral- herding nomadic -live in society/effected by weather and terrain
Horticultural -gardening and farming - domesticated animals and plants-more food less moving
Agricultural - birth cities (excess food) -cultural awareness art, music, literature -dawn of modern civilization.
Industrial - based on technology that mechanized production - factories - growth of inequalities
Post industrial -technology supports -services and professions - information based society- helping people.
Post modern -pre-occupied w/consumer groups and media -losing faith progress and truth claims - 1990s to present
COMPONETS of society
Formal Organization: a group designed for a specific / special purpose for max efficiency
Bureaucracy: Part of formal organization rules and hierarchical ranking are used to achieved efficiency, division of labor, rank order, written rules and regulations, impersonality employment based on qualifications.
Scientific management approach: workers are motivated by rewards (money)
Human relation approach: motivated by roles of the people
Social control: technique and stragies for preventing deviant behavior in any society.
Conformity: going along with others there is no individual direction
Obedience: compliance to a higher authority
Informal Social Control: When people use causal means to enforce norms
Formal Social Control: Carried out by authorized institutions
Law: Governmental social control
Deviance: is an violation of norms whether the information is minor or murder.
Stigma: characteristics that discredit people
Crime: the violation of rules that have been written into law
Social Order: is a groups customary social arrangements
Capital Punishment: the death penalty or the most extreme measure of punishment.