General terms and concepts
Health: a state of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing. Biopsychosocial.
Homeostasis: “Normal” aka the process that maintains the stability of the human body's internal environment in response to changes in external conditions. Example: maintaining body temperature.
Allostasis: “adaptation” aka process our body goes through to return to homeostasis. Allostatic load: tipping point between health/disease. Allostatic load is reached when the body is physically affected (hypertension, depression, heart disease). When your body can no longer adapt to reach homeostasis and you have specific symptoms.
Mind and body are intertwined. Disease is caused by evil spirits. Trephination: drill hole in skull so evil spirit can leave the body. Soap (2,000 BC)
Greek and Roman eras
Disease was natural and preventable. Food safety, fresh water, sewage. Humoral Theory.
Mysticism, evil spirits. Disease was caused by sin. Church=medicine and priests=doctors
Science and technology. Human dissection, microscope, cells.
Rene Descartes: mind-body dualism. Reductionism- reducing things down to one root cause.
Disease= biological. Germs, pathogens. Biomedical model.
1930’s- psychosomatic medicine. Conversion disorders. Ulcers, arthritis, migraines.
1940’s- stress physiology. Fight-or-flight. General Adaption Syndrome (GAS)- homeostasis. You have the power to put a stressor in a different perspective.
1950’s- The powerful placebo
1970’s- The relaxation response
Late 20th-21st century (1990’s-today)- psychoneuroimmunology. Genetics, epigenetics. Stress. Socioeconomic inequality. Social interconnectedness.
Nervous system: Functions are to receive stimuli and control response
Brainstem: involuntary functions- heart rate, blood pressure, respiration
Forebrain: cerebral cortex- higher reasoning, interpretation (sight, sound, touch, pain), voluntary movement
Limbic system: Amygdala- emotional, aggression, fear, threat, PTSD
Autonomic (sympathetic, and parasympathetic) vs. somatic(voluntary)
Sympathetic vs. parasympathetic / \ Fight-or-flight Rest and digest
Adrenal glands: release epinephrine and cortisol
Thyroid gland: metabolism, resting metabolic rate
Pancreas: insulin, glucagon
Immune system aka lymphatic system
Non-specific immune response: like a mall cop. Barriers (skin), antibacterial substances (sweat, stomach acid, saliva), phagocytes (cell eaters, digest pathogens)
Specific immune response: like James Bond. Breast milk, vaccines, previous infections, pathogens, antigens, B&T cells.
Stress and the stress response
Stressor (event that triggers coping adjustments, knocks you out of homeostasis) vs. stress (upsetting of homeostasis, how we perceive and respond to stressor)vs. strain
Eustress (positive) vs. distress (negative)
Stress response models
Immunosuppression Model -indirect effect hypothesis, stress hormones contribute, your behaviors affect immunosuppression
Glucocorticoid Resistance Model: chronic stress decrease immune system sensitivity to cortisol, inflammation= immune system, cortisol = down in inflammation, resistance = increase in inflammation
Transactional Model: events are not inherently stressful, appraisals vary by proximity, definition, predictionary, duration, and (#1 thing) sense of control