Twin studies reveal genes are an important component to consider when looking at the variation in intelligence.
Supported by gene mapping which associates a high iq with particular genes
Flynn effect – the IQ has improved all over the world by about 20 points in the last 30 years.
Turk – socioeconomic status of an individual can affect the variance in IQ
Mental illness – Schizophrenia Joseph Varmani
However brown found that schizophrenic individuals had twice as many stressful life events
Evolutionary – a behavior that increases our chance of survival and reproduction
Example – buss – women value industriousness in men
He found universal laws suggest a genetic basis
However 22% didn’t value industriousness and also men in the west didn’t value chastity – culture can affect the way which we behave.
Aggression – Bandura SLT
However the specific are acquired through learning while the urge to be aggressive may be genetic
Supported by cocora – 50% variance in aggression between twins
Changes in brain structures due to changes in behavior
Example – Maguire found that London taxi drivers had a bigger hippocampus to deal with spatial awareness.
More recently an understanding that both genetics and environment affect our behavior this can be explained using the diathesis stress model as genes are affect by our environment.
Reactive- an individual inherits a gene which provokes and aggressive response from others
Passive – an individual is raised in a home with parents who are mentally ill
Active – an individual will put themselves in an environment which complements their genes
Scientific benefits vs ethics
Milgram scientific benefits
Lead to many replications – improved reliability and validated study
Counter initiative – individuals didn’t believe that they would obey unjust orders
Findigns suggested otherwise
However – Mandel found that german police officers obeyed unjust orders during the holocaust despite the closeness
Milgram ethical costs
Psychologgical harm –3 severe seizures sweating and digging nails into flesh
Right to withdraw – part were given right to withdraw but told that the experiment requires them to continue making it difficult