Essay about Genetics Course Case

Submitted By diggerg23
Words: 985
Pages: 4

Court Case Ladies and Gentlemen of the Jury, I am here today to prove an innocent man not guilty by clearing him of all charges using scientific data. Mr. Gene N. O’Cent has been wrongfully accused of having road rage due to the fact that both parents drive aggressively and test positive for the AGGRESSIVE protein. The AGGRESSIVE protein is encoded by the AGG gene and causes tempers to increase in traffic, which can lead to many issues. However, after analyzing Mr. Gene N. O’Cent’s DNA, two very important mutations have been discovered that prove this man is innocent. DNA contains a chain composed of four different types of nucleotides, which when transcribed and translated contain genetic information that the offspring can inherit. These sequences of nucleotides within DNA are translated to form amino acids, which thus create proteins. DNA is double stranded and contains two antiparallel strands that are used to make copies. The copies of the DNA strands can then be created for the offspring to inherit. DNA transfers genetic material from generation to generation and it is found in all humans and comes from both parents of the offspring. Humans contain two copies of each gene; the offspring receives one copy from their mother and one from their father. Offspring can either be homozygous, contain two copies of the same allele within a gene, or heterozygous, contain two different alleles within a gene, which can help determine the phenotype of the offspring. Heterozygotes contain two different alleles; a dominant and recessive allele. Dominant alleles produce the same phenotype whether its paired allele is identical or different. Recessive alleles can only produce a certain phenotype when its paired allele is identical. Dominant alleles determine the phenotype of the offspring, no matter what the other paired allele is. Offspring can be phenotypically different from their parents due to several genetic mechanisms. Three genetic mechanisms that can cause phenotypic differences between offspring and parents are pleiotropy, dominant and recessive alleles, and mutations. Pleiotropy is defined as a single gene affecting multiple phenotypic traits. An example of pleiotropy is PKU disease, which is caused by a mutation within a gene that codes for a certain enzyme. Differences in genotypes can cause differences in phenotypes because offspring that are heterozygous can either display a phenotype similar to a homozygous dominant individual or a homozygous recessive individual depending on how the alleles act. Mr. Gene N. O’Cent’s parents are heterozygous for the AGG gene, therefore he could display this same trait or be completely recessive and not show the trait at all, that’s if no other mutations affect his DNA. The third genetic mechanism can cause phenotypic differences between offspring and the parents are specific to Mr. O’Cent’s case. The third genetic mechanism is mutations. Mutations are changes in a gene that can modify or prevent the function of a protein. It is common for a mutation to create an altered gene product that can result in new phenotypes. There are various types of point mutations such as silent, missense, nonsense, and frameshift mutations. Frameshift mutations are caused by insertions or deletions of a nucleotide. Insertions add one or more base pairs within the DNA sequence. Deletions remove one or more base pairs within the DNA sequence. The Defendant experiences an insertion within his exon region on an allele received from one of his parents, which can alter translation and ultimately the protein produced. Also, on a second allele received from one of his parents, a deletion within the polyadenylation signal region is evident, which effects nuclear transport, stability of the mRNA, interferes with transcription and prevents translation from occurring. The first AGG mutation is seen within the defendant’s exon, the coding region of the gene and is