Genetics: Dna and Recombinant Dna Technology Essay

Submitted By nativeboy1222
Words: 1092
Pages: 5

* Genetics core of biology * Fundamental to the comprehension of life * Divisions of Genetics: * Mendelin * Molecular * Populations (Bring in Ecological point of view) Changes in genetics over time. * Genetic info is: * Direct cellular function * Determines appearance of organism * Links generations
Father of Genetics: Gregor Mendel (1800’s) * Observed pea plant traits lead to modern understanding of transmission of traits. * Mendel defined a gene (unit factor) * Fundamental unit of heredity = Genes * Inherited factor that determine a trait in an organism
His work lead to “Chromosome theory of Inheritance” (The theory that chromosomes are linear sequences of genes. The unifying theory stating that inheritance patterns may be generally explained by assuming that genes are located in specific sites on chromosomes.) * Inherited traits are controlled by genes residing on Chromosomes * Genes are faithfully transmitted through gametes. (A gamete is a cell that fuses with another cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that reproduce sexually.) * Transmission maintains genetics continuity through generations.
“The central Dogma of Molecular Genetics”
DNA MRNA * DNA transcribed into RNA that is subsequently translated into protein or is biologically active. * Transcription of DNA to RNA to protein: This dogma forms the backbone of molecular biology and is represented by four major stages.
1. The DNA replicates its information in a process that involves many enzymes: replication.
2. The DNA codes for the production of messenger RNA (mRNA) during transcription.
3. In eucaryotic cells, the mRNA is processed (essentially by splicing) and migrates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
4. Messenger RNA carries coded information to ribosomes. The ribosomes "read" this information and use it for protein synthesis. This process is called translation.
Proteins do not code for the production of protein, RNA or DNA.
They are involved in almost all biological activities, structural or enzymatic.

Proteins and RNA’s provide virtually all biological function!

Recombinant DNA technology => Genomics
What is Recombinant DNA - Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA sequences that result from the use of laboratory methods (molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in biological organisms. Recombinant DNA is possible because DNA molecules from all organisms share the same chemical structure; they differ only in the sequence of nucleotides within that identical overall structure. Consequently, when DNA from a foreign source is linked to host sequences that can drive DNA replication and then introduced into a host organism, the foreign DNA is replicated along with the host DNA.
What is Genomics: Genomics analyze the sum total of gene structure, function, and evolution of genes and genomes. * Repositions of genomic sequence allow scientist to access genomic information NCBI

Recombinant Insulin – made in e-coli lab



Biotechnology has been used for the genetic modification of crop plants * Herbicide resistance (the acquired ability of a weed population to survive a herbicide application that previously was known to control the population) * Insect resistance (The development by insects of resistance to insecticide. The ability of an insect to withstand the effects of an insecticide by becoming resistant to its toxic effects by means of natural selection and mutations. * Altered oil content (Varieties of both canola and soybean have been genetically engineered to produce oils with improved nutritional or cooking properties.) * Delayed ripening (control how fast fruit ripens)