Genetics Vocav Essays

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Exam 2 Vocabulary

Chapter 11
Arteriosclerosis- a disease in which blood flow is restricted because the walls of arteries harden and lose their elasticity
Atherosclerosis- a disease in which blood flow is restricted because of buildup of fatty deposits inside the arteries
Carbon Monoxide- an extremely toxic gas that prevents blood cells from carrying oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body
Carcinomas- cancerous tumors or growths
Chronic Bronchitis- a respiratory disease involving inflammation of bronchial tissue following a buildup of excess mucus in air passages
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease- COPD, a group of diseases characterized by impaired breathing due to an abnormality in the air passages.
Cigarettes- rolls of shredded tobacco wrapped in paper, today usually fitted at the mouth end with a filter.
Cigars- tightly rolled quantities of dried tobacco leaves.
Cilia- small hair cells
Ciliary Escalator- the process of pushing back foreign particles that might interfere with breathing upward from the air passages into the throat, where they can be swallowed and excreted through the gastrointestinal tract.
Coronary Heart Disease- disease that damages the heart as a result of a restriction of blood flow through the coronary arteries
Emphysema- an enlargement of air sacs in the lungs and abnormalities in the air sac walls, causing great difficulty in breathing
Environmental Tobacco Smoke- secondhand smoke
Erythroplakia- small red spots inside the mouth and nasal cavity, indicating precancerous tissue
Gaseous Phase- the portion of tobacco smoke that consists of gases
Leukoplakia- small white spots inside the mouth and nasal cavity, indicating precancerous tissue
Mainstream Smoke- the smoke inhaled directly from cigarettes or other tobacco products.
Moist snuff- damp, finley shredded tobacco, placed inside the cheek or alongside the gum under the lower lip.
Nicotine- the prime psychoactive drug in tobacco products.
Nitrosamines- a group of carcinogenic compounds found in tobacco
Particulate phase- those components of smoke that consist of particles
Sidestream smoke- tobacco smoke that is inhaled by nonsmokers from the burning cigarettes of nearby smokers. Also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke.
Snuff- a quantity of finely shredded or powdered tobacco. Modern forms of snuff are available in either dry or moist forms.
Snuffing- the ingestion of snuff either by inhalation or absorption through tissue in the nose.
Tar- a sticky material found in the particulate phase of tobacco smoke and other pollutants in the air
Titration hypothesis- the idea that smokers will adjust their smoking of cigarettes so as to maintain a steady input of nicotine into the body.

Chapter 12
Adenosine- an inhibitory neurotransmitter that is blocked, or neutralized, by caffeine and other xanthines. The action on adenosine receptors in the body is the basis for the stimulant properties of these drugs.
Baking chocolate- a hardened paste, consisting of chocolate liquor produced by heating roasted cocoa beans.
Caffeine- a xanthine stimulant found in coffee, tea, chocolate, soft drinks and several medications
Caffeinism- a dangerous state of overstimulation from a very large dose of caffeine
Camellia sinensis- the plant from which tea leaves are obtained
Chocolate liquor- a deep colored paste made when roasted cocoa beans are heated so that the cocoa butter in the beans melts
Cocoa bean pods- parts of the cacao tree that are the raw material for cocoa and chocolate. Not the be confused the coca, the source of cocaine
Cocoa butter- the fat content of the cocoa bean
Coffea Arabica- a type of coffee bean native to the middle east but now grown principally in south America. It is typically referred to simply as Arabica.
Coffea robusta- a type of coffee bean grown principally in Indonesia, brazil, and Africa.
Theobromine- a xanthine stimulant found in chocolate
Theophylline- a xanthine stimulant