Exam #2 1. Mutation accumulation lines are created by bottlenecking an organism into one or two individuals for many generations. This is done to reduce natural selection as much as possible by ensuring that all but the most deleterious mutations have accumulated in basically a neutral fashion. The authors used these mutations accumulation lines instead of the wild-type C.elegans in order to minimize the possibility of natural selection mutations occurring. Therefore, making it possible for them to observe and analyze other mutations that occur spontaneously. 2. Subfunctionalization is when both copies of the duplicate gene are preserved, but can the job of the original gene can sometimes be split between the two genes. Whereas in neofunctionalization the duplicate gene is transformed into a new gene. Genetic mutations that may have led to functional differences could have been nonsynonymous substitutions or a frame shift that could have happened because of insertion or deletion. These both could lead to some change in the amino acid sequence that would result in a change in the genes function. Subfunctionalization can be distinguished from neofunctionalization by comparing the two genes after duplication. In subfunctionalization the two genes will have two separate functions that have derived from an ancestral gene. Whereas in neofunctionalization, the ancestral gene still exists with no changes to it while there is a new gene function created from the duplicated gene. 3. A paleopolyploid is in an organism that has undergone polyploidization several millions of years ago. In order for organism to be reduced to “paleopolyploid” status, the organism has to under a process known as diploidization. Paleopolyploids are also known as diploids. 4. The example of nefunctionalization that I found was a paper called: Evidence that strong positive selection drives neofunctionalization in the tandemly duplicated polyhomeotic genes in Drosophila. In this the authors are looking at the two polyhomeotic loci genes, ph-d(distal) and ph-p(proximal)are a result of a duplication event and are still in the beginning of their functional divergence. The CG3835 regions of both of the genes were compared in D. melanogaster, D. yakuba, and the D. simulans lines for comparison to each other. This was done to determine how the mutations of the polyhomeotic genes were behaving. They found that even though the ph-d and ph-p are still nearly identical now, the functional divergence is compelled by strong positive selection. It was also determined that they are regulated very differently and this may contribute to their early stage of their divergence. 5. The reason that some DNA sequences are deleted rapidly upon polyploidization is to eliminate genomic incompatibility of the parental genome. These sequences are thought to be too divergent and incapable of existing in the single organism harmoniously. Therefore, eliminating the incompatibility increases the chance of the organism having high fertility and reduces the size of the resultant genome compared to its expected size. 6. Four possible genetic processes that can result in new gene creation are exon shuffling, gene duplication, retroposition, and gene fusion. Exon shuffling is when two or more exons from different genes are brought together or an exon is
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1822 (2012) 1951–1959
Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/bbadis
Genetics of early miscarriage☆
Merel M.J. van den Berg a,⁎, Merel C. van Maarle b, Madelon van Wely a, Mariëtte Goddijn a
Center for Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Department of Clinical Genetics…
Biology /1st period
1 March 2012
Research: Genetic Engineering
What is Genetic Engineering?
Genetic engineering is the scientific alteration of the structure of genetic material in a living organism. It involves the production and use of recombinant DNA and has been employed to create bacteria that synthesize insulin and other human proteins.
Why is it used?
Genes influence health and disease, as well as human traits and behavior. Researchers…
The cost of fuel is ever climbing on a perpetual price ladder. The price of gas has doubled in the past decade and will continue to rise at an even faster rate than ever before. Why do gas prices continually swell? Who owns the oil being drilled and pumped from all over the world? Oil is a non-renewable resource owned by oiling companies such as Exxon Mobile, Chevron, BP, and other name brand gas providers. The prices are skyrocketing because of supply and demand. The world supply of natural…
leaders will face in integrating this new technology.
Keywords: Change, future, technology, genetics, genomics, Human Genome, 3-D printing, robotics, nanomedicine, nanotechnology, biomechatronics.
There are many emerging technologies that will change the practice of nursing in the coming decade. Seven are discussed here; genetics and genomics; less invasive and more accurate tools for diagnosis and treatment; 3-D printing; robotics; biometrics; electronic health records;…
Standard American Diet: One Size Does Not Fit All
In the last twenty years, the obesity rate in America has reached an alarming, life threatening level with one-third of adults and seventeen percent of children falling into the obesity category (Ogden, 2012), and at the same time, three out of the top ten nonfiction Best-Sellers are about diet and nutrition (Winston-Salem Journal, 2013). It would seem that with a nation so inclined to be obsessed with health and nutrition, Americans would not be the leader…
Running head: PERSONALIZED MEDICINE
Introduction to Biology- SCI115
Dr. Thaddeus Reamer
February 10, 2012
Gene patenting is big business. If you own a gene patent, you can charge whatever you wish for it. Gene patenting can hinder medical testing, keep critical information from you and your doctor, impede research, and halt medical advances in malicious diseases. In other words, gene patenting is a dangerous practice that may cause countless people…
Sommer page 1
America is riddled with concern that obesity has taken over in the lives of so many in the country and around the world. Today in this world, so many people are subjected to unhealthy food and bad exercise habits from the moment of birth. Some feel that large corporations to blame for this; of these large corporations, the soda and fast food industry should get most of the blame, but there are other groups that could be held responsible also. As many…
s t r at e g i e s
2012 I 09
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Monsanto Company Annual Report 2012
X Annual Report to shareholders with letter from Chief Executive Officer and SEC Form 10-K as part of the annual report to shareholders.
Financial highlights 2nd and 6th page of the AR
Management’s Discussion Pgs. 18-32
Income Statement Pg. 41
Balance Sheet Pg. 42
Statement of Change Pg. 44
Statement of Cash Flows Pg. 43
Chief Executive Officer Letter 3rd page of AR
Notes to Finances Pg. 45
Report of Independent Accts Pg. 92
5 or 10 year summary…
16 November 2012
Imagine having to live in fear of getting a disease which has killed millions of women over the years. Breast cancer is when cells in the breast divide and grow without normal control.
Tumors in the breast tend to grow slowly. By the time a lump is large enough to feel, it may have been growing for as long as 10 years. However, some tumors are aggressive and grow much more rapidly (Komen). Women can get other types of cancers, but most…