Essay on GEO 101 STUDY GUIDE WTK LIST 2

Submitted By christianordaz
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WHAT TO KNOW LIST #2, for Exam 2, GLG101 Garnero
1. Frost wedging is the major weathering process contributing to the formation of: TALUS SLOPES
2. Which two factors speed up rates of chemical reaction and weathering in rocks and soils? WARM TEMPERATURES; VERY MOIST
3. Which best describes sets of fractures in relatively fresh bedrock, such as granite, that are roughly parallel to the land surface? SHEETING FRACTURES
4. How do large, spheroidal boulders form from massive bedrock? CHEMICAL WEATHERING OCCURS MORE ON EDGES AND CORNERS. WHICH ROUNDS THE ROCK
5. Decomposition is a term for chemical weathering. Mechanical weathering involves rock materials being broken into smaller particles; IT IS TRUE STATEMENT
6. What fundamental concept states that in a horizontal sequence of sedimentary strata, each higher bed is younger than the bed below it? LAW OF SUPERPOSITION
7. Which type of stress results in folding of flat-lying, sedimentary strata? HORIZONTALLY DIRECTLY COMPRESSIVE STRESSES
8. Which fault type has no vertical movements of the sliding land on either side of the fault? STRIKE SLIP
9. Which one statement best characterizes joints in rocks? ROUGHLY PARALLEL FRACTURES AND ROCK STRUCTURES THAT SHOW NO DISPLACEMENT
10. Which low-grade metamorphic rock, composed of extremely fine-sized (can’t see w/ naked eye) mica and other mineral grains typically exhibits well-developed rock cleavage (fracturing)? SLATE
11. Which textural term denotes a strong, parallel alignment of different mineral bands in a metamorphic rock? FOLIATION
12. Which response best represents the conditions of contact metamorphism? PRESSURE ARE FAIRLY LOW; ROCK IN UPPER PRT OF CRUST HEATED SUPPLIED BY MAGMA BODY
13. Which rock forms through metamorphism of limestone? MARBLE
14. Which foliated metamorphic rock exhibits segregation of light- and dark-colored minerals into thin layers or bands? GNEISS
15. Three major factors involved in metamorphism are elevated temperature, elevated pressure, and the chemical action of hot fluids. True STATEMENT
16. In which setting would you expect metamorphism to be most likely? AT GREAT DEPTHS WHERE TWO CONTINENTS ARE COLLIDING; GREAT DEPTHS AND ACROSS. DEEP AND BURIED INTO THE EARTH.
17. Which answer gives two metamorphic rocks that are composed predominantly of single minerals? MARBLE AND QUARTZITE
18. Oxidation of iron in ferromagnesian minerals & dissolution of calcite are two examples of mechanical weathering. (T/F) FALSE
19. Quartz is quite resistant to weathering and is an important component of sands in riverbeds and on beaches. (T/F) TRUE
20. Feldspars commonly decompose during weathering of granite to: clay minerals, silica, and soluble constituents. (T/F) TRUE
21. Calcite, a major component of some monument and building stones, slowly dissolves in weakly acidic waters. (T/F) TRUE
22. Like most other liquids, water decreases in volume when it freezes. (T/F) FALSE
23. Which common mineral of igneous rocks is the most abundant mineral in clastic sedimentary rocks? QUARTZ
24. Which response best describes bedded gypsum and halite? EVAPORATION OF WATER
25. Which is probably the single most important, original, depositional feature in sedimentary rocks? BEDDING OR STRATIFICATION
26. What is the main difference between a conglomerate and a sedimentary breccia? BRECCIA CLASSES ARE ANGULAR; CONGLOMERATE ARE ROUNDED
27. Which sedimentary rock would you expect to have originally been deposited by fast-moving streams? CONGLOMERATE
28. Which is the most common, chemical, sedimentary rock? LIMESTONE
29. Tensional stress is a differential stress that _TENDS TO PULL ROCKS APART_______.
30. Sites where rock is exposed at the surface are called: OUTCROPS
31. A fracture that shows no appreciable displacement is called JOINT
32. A fracture that shows shifting of one side relative to the other side is called: A FAULT
33. The most abundant sedimentary rock is: SHALE
34. Limestone deposits : CALCITE OR ORIGINALLY COMPOSED…