Geog 350 Essay

Submitted By adrian0def
Words: 2377
Pages: 10

Lecture 1
What is a city? What makes cities work? Why should there be a city at all?
What is unique and interesting about cities

An urban area has a minimum population concentration of 1,000 persons and a population density of at least 400 persons per square kilometer, based on the current census population count. All territory outside urban areas is classified as rural

What is a city?
Tourist and entertainment resort
A religious project?
A cultural stage?
Represent important cultural performance
S apce/ place or power and oppression
A space for economic exchange or even a commodity itself?
Symbolic of economic heart
A place of fear and loathing
City can also be expression of identity
Political?

Urban and Human geography

Properties of cities
The single most fundamental reason for urbanization in Canada and else where
CLUSTERING OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITY
Proximity to markets
Proximity to coasts for transport of staples from the hinterland to the imperial states
Vancouver is post staples city
Ability for services
Production is essential part of revenue, it there is no support production then city will decline
Globalization helps
Social
Urban land: proximity to the core usually mean high land prices
Intensive use of lanf
Reproduction as a fundamental property of cities
Immigration is a key element to vitality and longevity of the Canadian economy and livelihoods or ur ban centres
Canada need immigration to expand

Capitalization
Human
Social
Financial
Natural
Manufactured
Environmental idealism
Governance
Environment
Sustainability

Economies of cities
Urban Structure before 1945
Manufacturing
Waterways and railways
Importance of family unit
Overcrowding
Walking and public transport
Dense urban form
Basic infrastructure: water, sewage roads and streetcars
Strong identication with local plae and neighbourhood
Few municipal land use controls besides infrastructure
New pressure for urbanization

Growth of major staples not simply for regional or national export but now international

Urban development
Transit expansion
Labor does not require university or knowledge level

New models to explain urban development
Chicago school: Burgess model of concentric zones
Hoyt sector model
Use more complicated pieces of pie

The boom Years: 1945 – 1975
Lots of development
Manufacturing moved away from downtown to suburban
Trucking industry
Start to decrease reliance of rails and start using more cars because more infrastructure of roads
Service sector emerges
Baby boom
Welfare state
Making sure economy is moving along
Cars allow decentralization

Intense land use controls through zoning
Now, people want to get as close as possible to the core

New urban form
New forms of less intensive manufacturing in suburban parks nodes
Manufacturing jobs offshore
Declining rates of pop growth
Retrenchment of the welfare state
Neoliberalism, government is not longer or less part of putting money to economy
Transits
Suburban development is intensificing

The post-industrial city 1: Changing labour Structures
Post industrial city
Rise of professional class. Highly paid, educated and increasing feminized and associated with particular lifestyles, consumption norms and politics
Decline in older, working industrial class
White collar class are highly paid
Its link to specific life style, new pattern of consumption

There is decline in industrial jobs (developed nations)

New forms of production
There are different factories to build different aspect of a car

Occupational change
Professional class and underclass both expanding
In the middle we have traditional working class

Social polarization
Increase in professionals & low level service workers

Fiscal constraints: new forms of fiscal austerity are built into the everyday operations of industries, firms, cities, countries

Post industrial city: changing economic landscape
Inside, core of city there are new types

Changing urban Morphology

Good parts of transformation
Job creation
Environmental innovation…