Geography: Glacier and Standard Time Essay

Submitted By danvy
Words: 988
Pages: 4

Features on a map
• Title
• Scale
• Direction
• north star
• legend
• Author/creator
• date of creation
• sources of info
• border
• labels

Mapping errors
- Map distortion
- Conformal maps = goof for shape but not area
- Equal distance maps = show everything but distance

small scale maps
- show small amount of detail
- more general info
- more than 1:250 000 = small scale
- shows physical, political, economic features
- ex: world map atlas, wall maps, road maps

large scale maps
- show lots of detail in a small area
- used for residential planning, military operations, hiking
- 1:50 000 or less = large scale
- ex map of school yard

Thematic maps: shows vegetation

General purpose maps: location of urban places, types of landscapes, major transpo routes

Political world maps: shows political boundaries

Natural boundaries: oceans, coast lines, mountains, lakes

Artificial boundaries: not established by physical features. May follow longitude or latitude

Topographical map: shows relief and elevation. Uses contour lines.
(SYMBOLS ON PAGE 24)
Chapter 3 page 30

Compass rose
- Shows direction on maps (compass points)
- Bearings measured in degrees
- EX: NE= 45 degrees
- 270 degrees = W

Alphanumeric grid
- grid uses letters and numbers to identify squares on a grid on a map
- letter BEFORE number
- ex. B3

military grid: west to east  (easting numbers = 4 digits)

military grid: 5 digits = same as above

Latitude: -east to west  -Parallel to one another, about 111km apart -(ex equator)

Longitude: -north to south ↕ -Meet at poles -Also called meridians -(ex. Prime meridian- zero meridian)

**********************LATITUDE BEFORE LONGITUDE****************************

International Date Line:
- imaginary line
- north to south
- passes thru middle of pacific ocean
- opposite side of prime meridian
- time zones are calculated from here
- universal time

Time zones
- 24 time zones on earth
- 15 degrees in each time zone
- longitude is relevant for time zones

- there are 6 time zones in Canada;

Pacific Standard Time (PST) 12:00 Mountain Standard Time (MST) 1:00 Central Standard Time (CST) 2:00 Eastern Standard Time (EST) 3:00 Atlantic Standard time (AST) 4:00 Newfound Land Standard time (NST) 4:30

Chapter 4 page 46

Direct statement scale: 1cm = 10 km
Representative fraction (rational): 1:50 one unit on map = 50 units on earth
Line scale: ruler on map divided into units of distance

Chapter 5 page 49

GPS (Global Positioning System): determines exact location

GIS (Geographic Information System): used for map making & map analysis. Creates maps with layered info. Manipulate data

To operate an GIS you need:
- power comp system with a printer
- GIS mapping software
STEP #1 base map to work in
STEP #2 analyze data, what layers on a map, how you want to display data
STEP #3 Assemble all elements of your map

Satellite images:
- used for predicting weather & making maps
- images are taken from orbit
- also used for military technology

Unit 3 (Physical connections)

Seismologist: scientist that studies earthquakes

Only 30 000 earthquakes are strong enough to be felt each year.

Earthquake:
- occur when pressure is released between tectonic plates
- can occur on surface or under water

Tsunamis:
- japenese origin, means large wave
- triggered by under water earthquakes
- earthquake sends energy wave along surface of water

Continental drift: theory by Alfred Wegner stating that 300 000 million years ago, all of earths land masses were collided and formed into a super continent called Pangaea. About 200 000 millions of years ago, Pangaea broke apart and the continents drifted apart to their present locations.

4 pieces of evidence were:
1) jigsaw fit between south America and Africa
2) he found fossils of the same plant…