Geography is the study of the earth’s surface and the forces (both natural and human) that shape it.
Types of Geography:
Cultural- The study of countries’ cultures (religion, languages, food…)
Economic- The study of locations, distribution and spatial organization of economic activities around the world. (Location of industries, retail, the changing value of real estate.)
Physical- Surface of the earth topics, such as glaciers, mountains,oceans,climate…
Social- The study of how society affects geographical features and how environmental factors affect society.
Political- Human geography/politics. The relationship between political power and geography.
Principle Points: N S E W
Halfway Points: NE SE SW NW
Quarter Points: NNE ENE ESE SSE SSW WSW WNW NNW
Types of Grids:
Alpha-Numeric Grids: A grid of numbered rows and lettered columns. A map used to find and identify features. Commonly used in atlases and street maps.
Military Grids: Used when great detail is required. A 6 digit reference system.
*Read Right then Up*
There are 24 time zones
1 hour difference between each time zone
Each time zone is made up of 15 degrees longtitude
The Prime Meridian is the centre of all standard time zones.
The Prime Meridian runs through Greenwhich, England, which is known as the GMT (Greenwhich Mean Time)
The Prime Meridian is the centre of the time zone called the UT (universal time)
The standard time in other zones are compared to the UT
Since the world rotates from west to east, time zones east of the prime meridian have local times ahead of the UT (Therefore time zones to the west of the UT are behind the UT)
To remember the time zones in Canada, remember “Paul Makes Cookies Every After Noon”
Paul: Pacific Makes: Mountain Cookies: Central Every: Eastern After: Atlantic Noon: Newfoundland
*** Newfoundland is only 30 minutes behind the Atlantic time Zone***
Lose (-) Gain (+)
Map Projections: When features of a globe are transferred to a flat surface. When projected, some areas are bigger/smaller than they actually are on earth.
Mercator Map Projection: Mostly used to show countries of the world in wall maps and atlases.
Scales: The scale of a map varies according to the amount of detail required.
Large Scale: Large scale maps show a LARGE amount of detail of SMALL area. Ex) 1:50000, Map of Milton.
Small Scale: Small scale maps show a SMALL amount of detail of a LARGE area. Ex) 1:500000, Map of…