Convection Currents are formed by the rising of warm fluid and the movement of denser, cooler fluid to take its place. These currents are formed in the Asthenosphere in the Mantle. Convection Currents move the Earths plates (Tectonic Plates). This is what it looks like:
The four main layers of the Earth include the Crust, Mantle, Outer Core and the Inner Core.
Earthquakes and Shockwaves cause Seismic Waves. Scientists can use sensitive equipment called seismographs to detect and measure the waves. This can tell them the location of the Earthquakes source.
Part 2: Volcanoes can form at a plate boundary from the cracks in the plate and molten rocks then burst to the surface.
Volcanoes can also form away from a plate boundarys. When plates move apart, a spreading ridge (a chain of gentle volcanoes) is formed.
Earthquakes can also form at plate boundarys. The interaction between neighboring plates creates strain and deformation of the rocks on both sides of a fault. Under these conditions rocks are bending and storing elastic energy. Eventually the forces that hold the rocks together are overcome and the elastic energy is rapidly released.
Volcanoes can have many effects on the Earth's structure. A Volcano erupts with such a tremendous force that most of the magma is blasted into tiny particles of dust and ash in the Atmosphere. The ash particles produce and eerie darkness in the sky which reflects the sunlight which brings gorgeous sunsets and sunrises all over the world.
The Lithosphere is effected from the tectonic plates colliding due to the 'Subduction Zone'. This can also cause Earthquakes at the time of a Volcano eruption.
The impacts on the Biosphere from a Volcano can be horrific. The sun can be covered for multiple days due to the ash and drinking water can be affected from the dust particles. A tremendous roar is made during an eruption. Hot Lava can sometimes pour onto roads and people can die.
When an Earthquake hits, the Hydrosphere is affected. Earthquakes cause displacements underwater and the cause Tsunamis. The vertical displacement during an Earthquake causes a ripple effect causing waves which advance at 500 to 900 kilometres per hour and about 100 to