History before Hitler * In 0009, Arminius defeated the Romans in the Teutoburg forest. Back then, Germany was a conglomeration of tribes. * Franconian duke Conrad I, first German king(Frankish king, Roman king) * Henri I establishes castles * Otto I, holy Roman emperor * Henry III started the reform movement of Cluny, new chastity of monks (they are not allowed to have kids, therefore their properties to go to the government when they die) * The first crusade started in 1096 with Pope Urban II; its objective was to conquer the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land, and to free the Eastern Christians from Islamic rule. * In 1356, Charles IV issued the Golden Bull(the election of the German king by 7 electors) * Maximilian is the only king to accept the crown without a papal coronation. * The Black Death lasted 7 years (1346-1353) and it is said to have killed 30-60% of Europe’s population. * 1525: Peasant revolt. * 1555: Pease of Augsburg(protestants are equal to Catholics) * 1618: 30 year war dominance over Europe. * 1648: Peace of Westphalia * During the Napoleonic wars, the French dissolved the Holy Roman Empire. German states were reduced to 19. The states then loosely allied in the Austrian led Confederation in 1815. Within this confederation, Prussia included most German states excluded Austria. Opposition to the restoration by burghers and students led to the unsuccessful 1848 March revolution. * Otto von Bismark; prime minister of Prussia for 19 year; introduced social legislation (health insurance, age pension). * Prussia becomes the predominant economic power of Germany. * In Danish-German was, the Danish lost Holstein. * In French-German war, the French lost Alsace-Lorraine. * Austria was defeated in 1866 and had to leave the German stage.
World War I * Germany becomes an economic world power. * France wants Alsace-Lorraine back. * England signs Japan, France and Russia(1902-1907) * June 1919 : Treaty of Versailles * After the departure of Emperor William II, Germany becomes a republic. * Weimar constitution is first to have basic civil rights. * 1923: Raging inflation * 1926: Germany is admitted of the League of Nations. * Many social programs. Meanwhile, civil servant, judiciary and imperial officer corps against the Republic system. * Causes of the fall of the Weimar Republic: 1929 economic crisis, political issues, desire for strong figure, radicalism, opposition by the media.
Hitler * Born on April 20th 1889, Head of the Nazi Party, received Iron Cross, Chancellor award, self-appointed Fuhrer(leader) from 1933 to 1945. Commited suicide on April 30th 1945.
From 1933 to 1945 * Factors that led to the rise of Hitler: economic crisis, humiliation at the WW1 and the treaty of Versailles, storm and fear troops on the Nazi side, Hitler’s charisma. * On January 30th 1933, Hitler becomes Chancellor * Some famous German Nazis: Heinrich Zimmler, Albert Speer, Hermann Goring * Gestapo: German secret Police under Nazi rule, Luftwaffe: German Air Force * Feb 27th 1933: Reichstag fire. Hitler suspends civil liberties and arrests communists. * May 2nd 1933: Trade Unions (they regulated labor and market policies)are disbanded and replaced by a labor front. * July 14th 1933: Law for protection of hereditary health, intended to spread the German seed, relations between Germans and Jews are banned. * Aug 2nd 1934: Hitler becomes president after