Essay on Getting It Sorted

Submitted By madisongilligan
Words: 2856
Pages: 12

Getting it Sorted
Extended Research Task 1
Madison Gilligan

S1 Introduction 3
S1.1 Key Terms 3
Properties 5
S2 Identification of Elements 6
S2.1 H24 (Krypton) 6
S2.2 G18 (Sodium) 7
S2.3 F30 (Fluorine) 7
S2.4 D20 (Oxygen) 8
S2.5 B50 (Iron) 8
S3 Justification 8
S3.1 Sequence 8
S3.2 Unnecessary properties 9
S4 Conclusion 9
S4.1 Useful Properties 9
S4.2 Properties and Trends 9
S5 Appendix 9
S6 Bibliography 10
Bibliography 10

S1 Introduction
S1.1 Key Terms
The elements in the periodic table are grouped together in certain groups and periods due to their chemical physical properties. The periodic table sorts the elements into metals, non-metals and metalloids based on their properties.

In the periodic table, each element has its own place and includes the elements known name, its symbol, two numbers that are unique to the element; the atomic number the mass number. The atomic number is the smaller number of the two and is a measure of the number of protons in the atom. When referring to the atomic number, the number of Protons is equal to the number of electrons that are held in the orbital shells. The mass number, or the atomic mass is the larger number and it determines the total amount of particles inside the nucleus of an element. With this information, the amount of Neutrons in the element can be calculated by subtracting the atomic number from the mass number (Somerton, 2014).

An isotope is an alternative form of an element with the same number of Protons and Electrons with an altered number of Neutrons. Considering the fact that an isotope has a different number of neutrons, the mass number changes, although the atomic number stays consistent. It is possible though for an isotope to become unstable and therefor radioactive as the particle undergoes decay. An example of an isotope is Hydrogen. Hydrogen in its ordinary form has no Neutrons, although, it also can exist with one Neutron and also two Neutrons, a visual example of this can be shown in figure 1 (University of Colorado, 2014).

Figure 1: Hydrogen, Isotopes




Ionisation energy is measured in kJ/mol and is the quantity of the energy that is necessary to separate the most freely held electron from one mole of electrons from 1 mole of atoms in a gaseous state. A mole includes 6x1023 and this is the amount that must be removed. The process and energy produces one mole of ions with a positive one charge. A trend in Ionisation energies in the periodic table is that when going across the periods, the energy tends to increase, and when going down the groups, the energy decreases. The energies can vary from 381kJ/mol, which is very low, to 2370kJmol (Clark, 2012). Group one has extremely low Ionisation energies as not much energy is needed for them atom to release their outermost electron as there is only one to lose. Elements release their outermost electrons to bond with different elements and to obtain a stable electron configuration (Chemical Reactivity, 2013). A reference to the trend of this can be shown below in figure 3.

Figure 2: Ionisation Energies

The allocation of Electrons in different orbital shells is known as electron configuration. The Electrons in the valence shell, determines what group a particular element will go in, for example, group one contains one Electron in the valence shell, group two all have two electrons in the valence shell, group three, and so on. Some properties such as reactivity relate to the elements electron configuration (Chem Wiki, 2014).

Reactivity is the exchange of electrons that leads to the formation of compounds and molecules. It refers to the difficulty at which elements react with each other. When an element has a high reactivity it means that it reacts fast with different particles because it has an almost full or almost empty valence shell, for an example, group 1 or 7. It is evident that when the valence shell is full, for an example, group 0 or group 8 the