13.) Study figure 5 which shows information regarding tends in both trade and aid between developed and less developed countries. Comment on the trends shown in figure 5.(7 marks)
Firstly figure 5 clearly illustrates that the proportion of exports which are admitted free duty has increased from approximately 53% in 1996 to approximately 70% in 2005. This could be suggested to imply that it has become easier for LEDCs to increase their exports to more developed countries because the demand will increase when he good s become duty free.
The second graph illustrates that generally the amount of aid which developing countries receive has increased by about $30 billion (USD). The graph also illustrates that the proportion of aid which has been given to help with debt repayments has rapidly increased from 2004 onwards; this could suggest that a greater amount of LEDCs are struggling to maintain their debt repayments.
However the greatest proportion of this aid remains to be invested in bilateral development aid. This suggests that perhaps the fundamental reasoning for these countries sending aid is to help the LEDCs become more developed in the future, as this would help to end many LEDCs dependence on aid.
14.) Outline and suggest reasons for the issues facing countries at very low levels of economic development. (8 marks)
Least developed countries (LDCs) are described as having the lowest levels of development. One such example is Sudan where approximately 46% of the country’s 37 million population live below the international poverty line of living on less than a dollar a day. Many LDCs face similar issues which are acting as barriers to development.
Firstly many of these countries are facing issues with conflict. It could be suggested that these issues are present due to the fact that there is often a scarcity of vital resources such as food and water so people feel the need to fight for basic resources.
Secondly many of these countries face problems with food supply. For example in the case of Sudan 6 million people received food aid from the Word Food Programme in 207. There are a few reasons for this. Firstly there are often geographical constraints to crop growth due to the fact that many of these countries are located in Sub-Saharan Africa where the land has a low carrying capacity. Secondly the crop yields could be low due to the fact that there is very little money available for investment.
These countries often have high fertility rates, for example in Sudan the fertility rate is 3.6. This could firstly be due to the fact that poor healthcare means there is a higher fertility rate due to the fact that women know it is likely that one or more of their children could suffer from diseases such as typhoid or Malaria. Secondly the high fertility rate could be due to the lack of education in these areas. In Sudan for example the literacy rate was just 46% for women in 2007, so it is unlikely that women have been well educated about contraception.
Finally many LDCs have become ‘trapped’ in debt cycles. For example in 2007 Sudan was in $46 billion of debt.. These nations may not be able to repay debts due to expensive high interest rates.
15.) Discuss the following development issue: “Economic Sustainability versus Environmental sustainability’ (10 marks)
To be economically sustainable it means that the economy will be able to continue positive growth for future generations. Whereas to be environmentally sustainable means to use the environment in a way which will prevent it from being damaged for future generations, for example natural resources must be used in a sustainable away. In an ideal world these two would exist together in harmony, however is this really achievable or just a theoretical idea? Here I will discuss the case for both environmental and economic sustainability with reference to Sarawak, a state in Malaysia.
Throughout the 1980s