EF International relations class
Introduction and Definition
• How can we define globaliztion?
-> Process by which economies and institutions develop international influence or start operatin g on an international scale
• Political economical and cultural/social fields
• Does the concept of globalization come from t he first civilizations or from the modern area?
• Industrial revolution
• Creation of the United Nations (1945)
What are the perspectives on globalization?
The hyperglobalist perspective:
Globalization as a new epoch in history
Decline of the nation-state.
Different view on whether globalization is goo d or bad.
The sceptical perspective:
• Fragmented and regionalized rather than glob al. • The “golden age” occurred in the 19th century.
• Marginalization of the third world.
• Multinational companies tied to the state.
• The global culture benefits the west.
• No single cause behind globalization.
• The outcome of globalization is undermined.
• The power of national government is changing
• The world’s “architecture” is changing.
• Less determinate understanding of globalizatio n Political globalization
• It refers to an increasing trend toward mulitlat eralism toward an emerging ‘transnational stat e apparatus’ (Moghan, P.35)
• E.g. NATO, UN, Arab League
• The united nations is an international organiza tion founded in 1945
• Made up of 193 member states
• General assembly: main policy making and rep resentative organ
• Security Council: works towards the maintena nce of international peace and security (15 me mbers, 5 permanent)
• Economical and social council: Body for the co ordination and policy review on economic, soc ial and emvironmental issues (54 rotating me mbers) • Trusteeship Council: supervision for colonies
• International court of justice: settles internatio nal legal disputes
• Scretariat: tens of thuosands of people who w ork for the UN
• National’s economic situations are interdepen dent • Rapid international trade
• Measuring economic globalization: GDP
Factor that promote economic globalization
Low transport cost
Internet Low trade barriers
Increasing role of TNCs
Creation of world economic
World trade Organization
• Located in Geneva, Switzerland
• Established in 1995
• 160 Countires
• Restrict barriers to international trade
• Set a framework for trade policies and revie w them
• Check global economic policy-making
• Settling disputes
• Assist less developed countried economically
International Monetary Fund
• Created in 1946
• Has 185 members
• Located in the USA
• Promote global monetary cooperation
• Guarantee financial stability
• Assist international trade by multilateral paym ent system
• Follow global economic trends and performan ce • Supply a economic