Essay Glossary: Human Development Index and Life Expectancy

Submitted By pauline257
Words: 2783
Pages: 12

Geography Year 10 Unit 1 Glossary
Access to clean/safe drinking water
Percentage of the population without access to clean water that is less than a 30-minute walk from home. Clean water is defined using the Millennium Development Goal definition including: piped water into dwelling, plot or yard; public tap/standpipe; borehole/tube well; protected dug well; protected spring; rainwater collection; and bottled water.
Aid recipients
Countries receiving or eligible to receive levels and types of aid from donor countries — governments or organisations — to help populations and infrastructure for various reasons.
Antiretroviral therapy
The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection.
Biosecurity
Preventative measures created to reduce the spread of infection disease, pest plants and animals.
Birth rate
Total number of births per 1000 of a population each year.
Carbon dioxide emissions, per capita
Human-originated carbon dioxide emissions stemming from the burning of fossil fuels, gas flaring and the production of cement, divided by the midyear population.
Caring for country
Australian government environmental management program supporting indigenous communities, to manage and protect our natural resources.
Cantril Self-Anchoring Striving Scale
A life evaluation scale that assesses an individual’s feelings and perceptions. This scale was created by Hadley Cantril.
Capitalism
Economic system where people can privately own and produce goods and services to make a profit in a market/retail economy. Basically, people work and make money and a life for themselves, not for the whole country. Most rich westernised countries such as USA, Australia, UK and NZ are capitalist countries, as well as all but the five communist nations.
Cartograms
Type of map based on the scale of the measurement of a variable, not the true scale of the area. Certain cartographic rules apply in that as far as possible, position and shapes of countries, provinces and states are conserved, but they are stylised, resized or distorted. Cartograms are also referred to as value by area maps.
Child Mortality
The death of infants and children under the age of five. Child mortality rates are usually higher in less economically developed countries due to poor access to clean water, food and health care services.
Child labour
Employment of children in any work that deprives them of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful.
Cholera
Water-borne bacterial infection of the digestive system (small intestine) easily caught by drinking contaminated water. Highly contagious. Symptoms are diarrhoea and vomiting that can cause death very quickly from rapid dehydration (especially in children). Easily cured with a cheap mixture of sugar and salt.
Civil war
War between people and groups in the same country.
Colonised
High migration of European people settling into new countries/ territories at the expense of the indigenous already settled there.
Communism
A way to govern and organise a country socially and economically and is seen as the opposite to capitalism. Basically, it is the idea that everyone is given the equal benefits of labour so that wealth is spread evenly so that there is no middle or upper classes of people. All production is controlled by the government, so nobody can own businesses or make their own goods and make money because everything belongs to the government. Therefore the population must follow all the laws given by the government. Communist countries are China, North Korea, Cuba, Laos and Vietnam
Correlation
Degree of relationship between two measureable variables or data sets. A positive correlation occurs when the variables increase or decrease together. A negative correlation occurs when one variable increases and the other decreases at a…