Essay about Glycolysis: Cellular Respiration and Atp Synthase

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Chapter 9 Assignment Glycolysis is the process where glucose made during photosynthesis is broken down. Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol and does not need oxygen to work. The process of glycolysis requires 2 ATP and glucose and uses it to produce 2 pyruvates, 2 additional ATP, 2 NADH, and carbon dioxide as well.

Pyruvate Oxidation occurs in the inner membrane of mitochondria. Pyruvate Oxidation does not need oxygen to operate as well. The process of Pyruvate Oxidation needs pyruvates (produced from glycolysis) and uses it by oxidizing it, which then forms and produces acetyl- CoA. Citric Acid Cycle, also known as the Krebs Cycle, occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria. The Citric Acid Cycle does require carbon dioxide and water in order to operate. The Citric Acid Cycle uses ADP+Pi, and NAD+ in order to produce carbon dioxide, ATP, and NADH.

Oxidative Phosphorylation occurs in the mitochondria. Oxidative Phosphorylation does require oxygen, but in extreme environments, nitrogen or sulfur is used. Oxidative Phosphorylation uses energy released by the oxidation of nutrients to produce ATP.

Fermentation occurs in the cytosol and need oxygen, but can use sugars in absence of oxygen to function. Fermentation uses the oxidation of organic compounds to produce ethanol, lactic acid, hydrogen gas, sugar, carbon dioxide and alcohol

ATP Synthase: ATP synthase is the enzyme that actually makes ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. ATP synthase uses the energy of an existing ion gradient to power ATP synthesis. The ATP synthase is in the inner mitochondrial membrane. A channel in the ATP synthase protein opens, and protons are allowed in. As the protons bind, the protein spins round. After a complete rotation, each proton moves to the inside of the membrane, where they are normally pumped back out. This