Essay about Gmf and Ivf

Submitted By hemannz
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Pages: 10

Genetically Modified Food
How are genetically modified food created?
Genetically modified foods or Biotech foods are foods derived from genetically modified organisms. Genetically modified organisms have had specific changes introduced into their DNA by genetic engineering techniques. It is created using biotechnology to change their genetic material. The genetic material may be altered with methods that do not occur naturally - this is known as ‘genetic engineering. An assortment of techniques is used to introduce the preferred genes or 'inactivate' unsolicited ones. Techniques comprise benign bacterial or viral infection (bacterial carriers), gene splicing, gene ‘silencing’, biolistic, calcium phosphate precipitation and electroporation. In Food may be genetically modified to increase its shelf life, make it impervious to pesticides and insecticides, or improve the crop nutritional yield. They were first put out in the market in 1996.

Explain why genetically modified foods were created. Use 2 examples in your answer.
Genetically modified foods are produced for numerous amounts of reasons. We support prudent use of genetically modified foods. We understand the risks involved, but believe the benefits far outweigh the costs. Many scientists continue to genetically modify food for the following reasons:
The preliminary objective for developing plants centred on GM organisms was to improve crop protection. The GM crops currently on the market are mainly aimed at an increased level of crop fortification through the introduction of resistance against plant diseases cause by insects or through increased tolerance towards herbicides.
GM foods are also developed and marketed because there is some advantage either to the producer or consumer to these foods. This is meant to translate into a product with a lower price and greater benefit in terms of durability or nutritional value) or both. They also believe that by creating genetically modified foods they would get farmers and primary producers appreciation because they would not have to apply large amounts of pesticides and chemicals to the surrounding environment, therefore saving a big load of money. GM advocates argue that genetically modified foods are also potentially better for the environment.
Many parts of society object to genetically modified foods. Describe their concerns. Include atleast three groups in your discussion.
Farmers – Some farmers agree that genetically modified food could be potentially dangerous the reason for this is because plants bio-engineered to produce pharmaceuticals (such as medicines) may contaminate food crops. Other reasons why they object to genetically modified food include the potential for cross-breeding between GM crops and surrounding vegetation, including weeds.
Environmental Activists – Environmental Activists have also raised concerns about GM foods; they have criticized agribusiness for pursuing profit without concern for potential hazards. They say that GMF are dangerous as they can harm the environment by killing different species of animals because of the toxins and chemicals it has in it which can lead to many disasters such as extinction.

Government Officials – Government officials agree that most GMF are dangerous and may lead to human health risks. Genetically modified food may have unknown effect on human health, there is a growing concern that introducing foreign genes into food plants may have unexpected and negative impact on human health. There is also a possibility that introducing a gene into a plant may create a new allergen or cause an allergic reaction in susceptible individuals.
Describe, in detail, the process of in-vitro fertilisation. Use two examples in your answer. In IVF, the sperm fertilizes the egg outside the body, and doctors implant it into the woman's uterus in hopes of a successful pregnancy. IVF is a major treatment for infertility when other methods of ART have failed. The