· The student will understand the formation and development of the United States.
· Recognize and comprehend the impact of the influences of intellectual and religious thought on the political systems of the United States.
· Identify and describe the impact and the influence of the intellectual and religious thought on the political systems of the United States.
· Magna Carta
· Political concepts of Locke, Rousseau, and Montesquieu
· Great Awakening
· Bill of Rights
· Identify and describe models and concepts for central government.
· First and Second Continental Congresses
· Political parties
· Declaration of Independence
· Articles of Confederation: strengths and weaknesses
· Constitutional Convention
· State vs. national power
· Major crises and compromises
· Debate over ratification
· First American Political Systems
· Economic differences
· Jefferson vs. Hamilton
· Examples: national debt, state debt, banking system
· Washingtons Farewell Address
· Impact of John Marshall on the Supreme Court
· Judicial Review - Marbury v. Madison
In Standard I, you will recall learning that the colonists brought with them all of their British traditions of government, social structure, economics, and religious practices. As they lived apart from their fellow countrymen who remained in England, they began to develop a spirit of independence, especially in the areas of economics and political thought. They turned to the philosophers of the Enlightenment who believed that all men had natural rights and used their models to reshape all they had known about government. The formation of the Virginia House of Burgesses and the signing of the Mayflower Compact are examples of this reshaping of government by the American colonists.
By the mid 1700s, arguments between the British government (Parliament) and the colonial governments continued to occur. A turning point for the colonists came after the conclusion of the French and Indian War (1754-1763). The resentment on both sides continued to grow as the colonial leaders such as John Adams, Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson and others began questioning and challenging British colonial rule. The colonial complaint of the 1760s, “no taxation without representation,” and the constant arguments over the Stamp Act, Sugar Act and others led to conflict in Boston in 1770 known as the Boston Massacre, and again in 1773, as the Boston Tea Party. By 1776, the colonists and British had reached a “point of no return” and war seemed inevitable.
In addition to the political separation that was developing between the colonists and the British, the Americans were developing their own distinct identity as an American people and a unity that had not existed during the entire colonial period to this time. New religious traditions emerged as the Great Awakening, the first religious revival period in American history, began in the 1730s and led to the development of many new religious groups. Jonathan Edwards’ sermon, “Sinners in the Hands of An Angry God” became the most famous sermon of this movement. Many of the followers of the Great Awakening adopted not only new religious practices, but also became more open to views on individualism, independence and democracy that would directly affect the creation of the government of the new nation.
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