The Constitution | Background to the constitution1787 Philadelphia convention 55 founding fathers met to review system of govt set up in 1776 by declaration of independenceThe confederation had been set up keeping in mind that it had to be very different from the British system, without a monarch like figure. Limited federal power to stop this & protect the liberties of peopleIt only had a legislature, but central govt was to weak & failed to even simply unite the country | Challenges of producing a constitutionEnsuring central govt was strong enough to be able to deal with problems & unite the country but weak enough to stop a monarch like figure emerging.Stopping larger states controlling smaller states Federalists – central govt should have adequate powerAnti – Federalists – protecting people from govtBoth agreed it needed more power but how much was the issue. Federalists gained more in the convention but anti federalists clawed back during ratification by states | Powers of the Federal government (1) – article 1CongressArticle one is on the legislature, they intended for this to be the main policy making body of govt not the executive.Prohibited them from passing ex post facto laws that punished someone for a crime they had committed before the law had been createdGave the elasticity clause to pass any laws that were necessary & proper to fulfil its role. | Powers of the Federal government (2) – article 2Executive Gave him the state of union address in which he can recommend what he deems necessary in his judgement. Implementing laws that congress makes, appointing ambassadors negotiating treaties & commander in chief (foreign policy), selecting heads of departments (put laws into force) | Powers of the Federal government (3) - article 3Supreme CourtOnly specified that the court should e created & the types of cases it should hear, as well as how its judges were to be appointed | Safeguards on Federal Government power (1)FederalismLimiting federal govt as a whole increasing its power, individual states were to take care of all other matters not outlined in the constitution, although there was a federal government states still had powers over many issues Dual federalism – both work on their own – layer cakeCooperative federalism – integrated - marble cakeNew federalism – Nixon, Carter, Reagan, Clinton, Bush & Obama all gave back powers to the states | Safeguards on Federal Government power (2)Separation of powersKeeping the three branches separate in order to stop them working together & becoming too powerfulBicameralism As congress was the most powerful branch, it had to be separated as well & two chambers were created who would work together but at the same time keep a check on each other & have different powers. | Safeguards on Federal Government power (3)Checks & balancesEach branch was given the responsibility to make sure the others weren’t exceeding their powers; in order to do this each branch had to have a proportionate amount of power. Constitutional amendmentMade it difficult for politicians to make, two methods – ¾ of states make a convention – PhiladelphiaAmendment proposed to congress, 2/3rds of both houses pass it, ¾ of states ratify it. Only 15 effective amendments excluding bill of rights. (Flag desecration) | Safeguards on Federal Government power (4)Staggered elections - HOR 2 years, president 4 years, senate 6 years. This way even if a party wins all the elections, which rarely happens, the other part of govt is from another party making it unlikely that they will work together in order to create more power for federal govt.(democrats took control of congress in 2006)Fixed elections days - in order to stop govts setting an election when it would most suit them so that they could win another term in office the founding fathers declared all elections would be on the first Tuesday of November.(Obama and McCaine) | Bill of Rights1) Freedom of…
To what extent is politics in the United Kingdom ‘completely dominated’ by the government of the day?
The government of the United Kingdom consists of three key institutions – the executive, the legislature and the judiciary. The executive is the government which has been voted for by the majority (although not an overall majority) of the electorate and is headed by a prime minister. The legislature is the parliament which consists of two legislative chambers – the House of Commons and the House…
Government & Politics
* Treaty of the Commons (no law) - [a problem that starts with commons abuse. Commons are limited resources everyone need. They cannot be denied to anyone; public.] This leads to violent conditions w/o gov’t. You have to set up rules to prevent tragedy.
* Government (laws) - [an organization the implements politics; who gets what, when, and how.] This puts restrictions on commons. Everything is influenced by government and politics (i.e. owning a car…
AP Government and Politics Study Guide
Civil Liberties: Religion, Speech, Assembly & Petition
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or the press, or the right of the people to peacefully to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.”
Establishment Clause: “make no law respecting the establishment of …”
Free Exercise Clause: “or prohibiting…
Presidential Powers Related to Public Policy
American Government and Public Affairs
Colorado Technical University
The election of President Barack Obama was a very significant event for the American Government. The American Government has always had a standard to which the country was to be run. Each branch of government was given expressed powers by the constitution. Each branch has a certain job and has certain liabilities regarding the other…
Government & Politics
Unit 1: People, Politics & Participation
Participation & voting behaviour
What is politics?
Politics is about how we are governed. Ways in which decisions are made about government, states and public affairs: where power the people'.
In UK democracy, a few govern and the mass of people follow. The electors cast their vote every few years at an elect time.
Limited democracy - voters are giving away the right of decision making to a small number of elected representatives who…
Did the British Coalition Reforms address the problem?
Fixed Term Parliament Act passed –meant every 5 years there had to be a general election, people power over executive power
E petitions set up any with 100000 signatures are eligible to be debated in parliament – more voice for the people, our rights, what we want to discuss being a priority.
Primary Elections – everybody decide who should stand, more democratic
AV Referendum failed, to change the voting…
mankind to create a civil society and eventually form government.
2. Tocqueville argued that Puritanism was closely related to political theory because of the way churches were formed. Puritans would simply vote on the idea of adopting another church. This method was very democratic compared to the way Catholic churches were formed. That idea was carried over into their social contracts and eventually their government. In order for any government to exist, it needed to have the consent of the governed…
development in politics and government in the period 1483-1547
Acts of union
Crown and parliament to crown in parliament (Thomas Cromwell)
Empson and Dudley
Richard’s III’s shift in control of the North
The Acts of Union where very significant in the development of government. It unified Wales, which was seen to be a lawless country, to England and created one stable and powerful unit. The Acts of union in 1536 were very important to the development of politics and government in the period…
The governments of the interregnum failed to find an acceptable settlement predominantly due the power vacuum which was left by the King when he was executed. This wasn't helped by the lack of legitimacy of the regicide where only 59 MP's signed Charles' death warrant. However one could argue that Oliver Cromwell, Parliament and The New Model Army's want and desire for more power also led to the failure to find an acceptable settlement.
After Charles was executed several political problems arose…