Americans had the advantage of abundant natural resources. The nation’s farmers produced a wealth of cotton and wool, and fast-moving rivers existed for transportation and cheap energy. The U.S. federal government attempted to assist American industry through tariffs. Britain had cheaper labor because they had a larger population, which meant a larger amount of landless laborers who were willing to take low-paying factory jobs and they undersold American competitors. Because of cheap transatlantic shipping and low interest rates in Britain, raw cotton could be imported from the United States, manufactured into clothing, and resold at bargain price. The American government, in attempts to offset these British advantages, imposed many tariffs. In 1816 Congress passed a tariff that protected textile manufacturers from low-cost imports of cotton cloth. In 1824 Congress levied a new tax of 35% on higher-grade woolen and cotton textiles, imported iron goods, and various agricultural products. In 1828 Congress increased the textile duty to 50%. In 1833 Congress begins to reduce these tariffs after receiving pressure from southern planters, western farmers, and urban consumers.
2. What roles did government play in the development of America’s transportation networks? In 1820, to meet the demand for cheap farmsteads, Congress reduced the price of federal land. By 1840, this generous land-distribution policy had lured about 5 million people to states and territories west of the Appalachians. To link these settlers to one another, state governments chartered private companies to build toll roads, or turnpikes. In 1806, the National Road construction was approved by Congress. This road would tie Midwestern states to the seaboard states. The pivotal event was the approval of the New York legislature in 1817 to build the Erie Canal, a 364-mile waterway from Lake Erie to the Hudson River. At that time, the longest artificial waterway in the US was just 28 miles long. Working through the Commonwealth system, state governments subsidized the canals. John Marshall and the Supreme Court decided that no local or state monopolies or tariffs would interrupt the flow of goods, services, and news across the nation.
3. How important were the Industrial + Market revolutions in changing the US economy? The Market Revolution resulted from the combined impact of the increased productivity of farms and factories, the entrepreneurial activities of traders and merchants,and the development of a transportation network of roads, canals, and railroads. The Market Revolution was important because the states poured millions into transportation networks that spurred economic growth and helped the Unites States Economy. New roads and canals allowed people to exchange goods in distant markets. The Industrial Revolution was a period during which mostly agricultural, rural societies in Europe and America became industrialized and urbanized. The iron, textile industries, and the discovery and improvement of the steam engine, played central roles in the Industrial Revolution because it improved the systems of transportation, communication and banking. From 1790-1860 James Watt, Eli Whitney, Thomas Savery, Thomas Newcomen, and many other inventors created new things that would help immensely in industry. There was a change from the slower and more expensive production by hand to the quicker and less costly production by machine. It also boosted the growth of major towns and changed