Chapter 22 section 4
By: julia, diondria,tyrone,destaniy
• Political history
• Soviet government structure
• Gorbachev’s reform
• Fall of the soviet union
• Russian government today
• THE SOVIET UNION WAS THE MODERN SUCCESSOR TO THE
• A SUCCESSION OF TYRANNICAL CSARS RULED THE EMPIRED.
• CZARIST RULE BEGAN TO COLLAPSE AFTER HEAVY LOASSES IN
THE RUSSO-JAPANSES WAR IN 1904-1905.
THE BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION
• THE BOSHEVIK REVOLUTION LED BY v.i LENIN overthrew the
Kerensky government on November 7,1917.
• a brief revolution in march 1917 forced the abdication of czar Nicholas the second. • lenin was a architect he began to transform an underdeveloped, traditionbound country into the worlds first communist state.
• THE SOVIETS SUFFERED STAGGERING LOSES IN WORLD WAR 2.
• STALIN "PURIFIED" THE GOVERNMENT BY HAVING HIS RIVALS AND
MILLIONS OF OTHER DISSIDENTS JAILED,EXILED OR EXCUTED.
• LENIN DEATH IN 1924 PROMPTED A FIECRE STRUGGLE FOR POWER.
SOVIET GOVERNMENT STRUCTURE
• THE COUNTRYS COMPLEX GOVERNMENT CONSISITED OF SEVERAL
LAYERS OF ELECTED SOVIETS.
• THE LARGEST AND MOST IMPORTANT OF THE REPUBLICS WAS
• MAJOR POLICYS DECISONS WERE MADE AT THE TOP BYTHE
COMMUNIST PARTY LEADERSIP.
THE SOVIET CONSTITUTION
•The structure and power of the soviet system were set out in the constitution of the soviet union.
•Although the constitution contained several civil rights provisions, it did not guarantee soviet citizens such basic rights as free speech, press, and association.
•Under communist control, the legislature, called the supreme soviet, was a kind of puppet theater.
•Citizens could vote for members of the legislature, but in general only one candidate ran for each office.
•Candidate was either a communist party member or a vocal supporter of the party.
THE COMMUNIST PARTY
•From the revolution of 1917 until 1990, the communist party was the only political party in the soviet union.
•The CPSU was an elite party, composed of some 19 million specially chosen people only nine percent of the adult population.
It was organized like a pyramid.
•The central committee assemble once every six months. Elected the much smaller politburo, which ran the party.
•A new, fairly brief stage of soviet government began in 1985 when
Mikhail Gorbachev became general secretary of the party.
•Perestroika was the restructuring of political and economic life.
•Glasnost was the policy of openness under which the government increased its
Tolerance of dissent and freedom of expression.
1.The legislature. Under Gorbachev, the legislature was composed of the large congress of peoples deputies and the smaller supreme soviet.
2. The president. Gorbachev also created a new office: president of the soviet union.
3. The CPSU. Democratic reforms reduced the party’s power. In 1990, it lost its exclusive position and a number of smaller political parties emerged.
FALL OF THE UNION
•In 1989, encouraged by Gorbachev emphasis on glasnost, a wave of democratization rolled across Eastern Europe.
•Middle of 1990, the republics of Russia, Ukraine, and Byelorussia, as well as several smaller republics.
•Leading the protest was Russian President Boris Yeltsin.
•Boris Yeltsin became the major proponent of a radical economic reform plan.
RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT TODAY
• Since 1991, the government of Russia has moved toward democracy and economic reform.
THE CONSTITUTION OF 1993
•Approved in a national