Essay on Grover Cleveland and Tariff Issue J.

Submitted By dreckleberg
Words: 766
Pages: 4

I. Paradoxical politics

A. Political life in the Gilded Age
1. City rings and bosses help illustrate the era
a. William "Boss" Tweed
Boss of Tammany Hall, a New York City Democratic political machine. Influenced poor and immigrants.

2. Few real differences between political parties

3. Party loyalty results in higher voter turnout
4. Paradox of voter turnout and inertia
B. Partisanship
C. Patronage and favoritism
D. Geography, religion, and ethnicity
E. Republicans
F. Democrats
G. Political stalemate
H. Republican presidency and Senate, Democratic House
I. Stasis except for tariff issue
J. State and local initiatives
K. Role of state governments

II. Corruption and reform: Hayes to Harrison

III. Alliance between politicians and business
IV. Favors for politicians
V. "Spoils" of office
VI. Rutherford
VII. Hayes and civil service reform
VIII. Republican party split between Stalwarts and Half-Breeds
IX. Shift toward merit-based appointments
X. Limiting the role of government

XI. The administrations of James A. Garfield and Chester A. Arthur

XII. Garfield as president
XIII. Election of 1880
XIV. Garfield's assassination
XV. Arthur as president
XVI. Arthur's surprising reforms
XVII. Prosecution of the Star Route Frauds
XVIII. Pendleton Civil Service Act (1883)
XIX. Attempts to lower tariff

XX. The first administration of Grover Cleveland

XXI. The Scurrilous Campaign
XXII. Republicans
XXIII. James G. Blaine and the "Mulligan letters"
XXIV. Rise of the Mugwumps
XXV. Democrats
XXVI. Grover Cleveland and early career of reform
XXVII. Cleveland and the potential scandal of an illegitimate child
XXVIII. Last-minute blunders by Blaine
XXIX. Cleveland as president
XXX. Cleveland and the special interests
XXXI. Limited view of government's role
XXXII. Opposition to pension raids on Treasury
XXXIII. Railroad regulation and the Interstate Commerce Commission
XXXIV. The tariff
XXXV. Felt tariffs led to "trusts"
XXXVI. Cleveland's annual message of 1887 devoted entirely to tariff
XXXVII. Election of 1888
XXXVIII. Tariff was main issue
XXXIX. Corruption and the phony "Murchison letter"
XL. Cleveland won popular vote, but lost election in electoral college

XLI. The administration of Benjamin Harrison

XLII. Significant legislation
XLIII. Dependent Pension Act
XLIV. Sherman Anti-Trust Act
XLV. Sherman Silver Purchase Act
XLVI. McKinley Tariff
XLVII. Admission of new western states
XLVIII. Midterm elections of 1890
XLIX. Great Republican losses
L. Reasons for Republican losses

LI. The farm problem and agrarian protest movements

LII. The diversity of farm interests
LIII. Decline in commodity prices
LIV. Domestic overproduction
LV. International competition
LVI. Railroads and middlemen
LVII. High railroad rates
LVIII. Little bargaining power
LIX. High tariffs
LX. Debt
LXI. Crop liens and land mortgages
LXII. Forced to grow cash crops

LXIII. The Granger movement

LXIV. Oliver H. Kelley founded the Grange in 1867
LXV. Membership in the Grange
LXVI. Goals of the Grange
LXVII. "Granger Laws"
LXVIII. Regulation of railroad and warehouse rates
LXIX. Supreme Court upheld warehouse regulation in Munn v. Illinois (1877)
LXX. Decline of the Grange
LXXI. Failure of economic ventures
LXXII. The Independent National (Greenback) party

LXXIII. The Farmers' Alliance

LXXIV. The growth of the Alliance
LXXV. South and West
LXXVI. Colored Farmers' National Alliance
LXXVII. Role of women