Name: Kiana Cyrus
Read pages 16-24
What are the basic features of 3 major periods of Egyptian history?
What elements of continuity are evident in the 3 periods? What are their major differences?
“Egyptian nile”. Means “surpasses all the rivers of the world in sweetness of taste, in length of course and usefulness. No other river in the world can show such a continuous series of towns and villages along its banks.”
Egypt was a river valley civilization.
Nile- beginning in the heart of Africa and coursing northward for thousands of miles
Longest river in the world
“black land”- very fertile, dark in the color from the silt and the crops that grew on it so densely
River was life enhancing
Egypt was more rural, with many small population centers congregated along a narrow band on both sides of the Nile.
Egypt had natural barriers that fostered isolation protected it from invasion gave it a sense of security.
Egyptians went through life with a spirit of confidence in the stability of things
OLD AND MIDDLE KINGDOMS periods of long-term stability characterized by strong monarchical authority, competent bureaucracy, freedom from invasion, a lot of construction of temples and pyramids, and considerable intellectual and cultural activity intermediate periods- between the periods of stability, they were characterized by weak political structures and rivalry for leadership, invasions, a decline in building activity, and a restructuring of society.
Old kingdom land consisted mostly of numerous populated areas ruled by tribal chieftains
Old Kingdom encompassed the third through sixth dynasties of Egyptian kings, lasting from around 2686 to 2180 BCE
The capital of the Old Kingdom was found at Memphis, south of the delta.
Pharaoh- the most common title used for Egyptian kings. Pharaohs possessed absolute power and were seen as divine.
Egyptian kings were supposed to rule according to set principles
Ma’at- the chief principle
Egypt was divided into provinces, or nomes as they were later called by the Greeks- 22 in upper Egypt and 20 in lower Egypt
Old kingdom eventually collapsed
A period of stability lasting from around 2055 to 1650 b.c.e.
later portrayed the Middle Kingdom as a golden age, a clear indication of its stability
Nome structure was reorganized
Nomarchs were confirmed as hereditary officeholders but with the understanding that their duties must be performed faithfully
Old Kingdom- the pharaoh had been viewed as an inaccessible god-king
Middle Kingdom- pharaoh was portrayed as the shepherd of his people with the responsibility to build public works and provide for the public welfare
Society and Economy in Ancient Egypt
Society had a simple structure largest number of people in Egypt worked the land the king owned all the land but granted portions of it to his subjects serfs- paid taxes in the form of crops to the king, nobles, and priests; lived in small villages or towns; and provided military service and forced labor for building projects.
The Culture of Egypt greatest achievement of Egyptian civilization- the building of pyramids- happened in the time of the Old Kingdom