T he ‘In-Text’ System
General Principles of the Har vard System
The Harvard System requires two parts: you should have both in-text references and a list of references at the end of your work.
1. Within the Text—In-text Citations
The Harvard referencing system requires you to include three pieces of information about a source within the text of your work. This information is: • the name of the author or authors • • the year of publication the page number (when the information/idea can be located on a particular page, or when directly quoted)
What is Referencing?
Referencing is a system that allows you to acknowledge the sources of information you use in your writing. If you do not reference your sources you are plagiarising.
When to Reference
You must provide a reference whenever you quote, paraphrase or summarise someone else’s ideas, theories or data. You must also reference any graphic information you use. Some of the sources you will need to reference include: • books or chapters in books • • • • • journal or newspaper articles conference papers films or television programs personal communications like emails, interviews or letters electronic sources such as web pages, journal articles from online databases, or usenet groups.
2. At the End of the Text—List of References
At the end of your text, you must include a List of References, a list of all the books, journal articles and other sources of information you have used to research your assignment.
1. In-Text Citations
How to Cite ‘In-Text’
Citations may be placed at the end of a sentence (before the concluding punctuation) in brackets: The theory was first developed by Browne (Gibbs 1981). Another way of including a reference in your text is to integrate the author’s surname into your sentence, followed by the year of publication and page number, in parentheses:
Gibbs (1981, p. 89) states that Browne was the first to develop the theory of... The following extract is an example of a paragraph using the Harvard system: Criticisms aside, Durkheim’s work was an extraordinary contribution to the sociology of religion, perhaps more specifically to a greater understanding of the origins of collective morality. Gardner (1987, p. 74) makes an extremely important point about Durkheim when he writes “Durkheim had a lifelong interest in morality . . . For Durkheim morality was the centre and end of his work and society itself was the end and source of morality” . For Durkheim, the nature of morality was the nature of social solidarity. In The Elementary Forms Durkheim defined religion as the main expression of the deep moral sentiments inspired by society in individuals. His interest in the moral substratum of the modern social order expressed concern with the moral consequences of modernisation (Toles 1993). To cite a direct quotation Write the text word for word and place quotation marks at the beginning and end of the quotation. The author, date and page number must be included. “Australia is a settler society” (Hudson & Bolton 1997, p. 9). To cite a paraphrase or a short summary of an author’s words or ideas Restate the original words/ idea in your own words. The author, date and page number(s) must be included. Wartime textile rationing was imposed through a coupon system, which meant garments now had two costs: their value in monetary units and in coupons (McKernan 1995, p. 152). To reference the overall content of a work You do not need to include page numbers because it is the entire work you are referring to: Larsen and Greene (1989) studied the effects of pollution in three major cities...
2: List of References
The List of References in the Harvard system is a single list of all the books, journal articles and other sources you have referred to throughout your assignment.
1. A list of references should be laid out alphabetically by author surname. 2. If bibliographic information exceeds one line of text, then the