Have an Understanding About Toxi Essay

Submitted By Mintri
Words: 434
Pages: 2

Toxicology 101-95 Exam 1 Glossary

Acute – looks at the immediate effect of a chemical to an organism. LD50 is an example.

Allergic Response – due to sensitization of the immune system to a particular chemical resulting in specific antibodies or sensitized cells. Response does not occur at initial exposure.

Biotransformation – the process whereby a substance is changed from one chemical to another by a chemical reaction in the body.

Chronic – looks at the long-term effects of a chemical to an organism. Examples include reproduction and development.

Dose – total amount of chemical to which an organism is exposed.

Doseage – determined based on characteristic of the animal such as weight. Used to normalize overall dose.

ED50 – the dose which produces an effect in 50% of the population tested.

First-Pass effect – process whereby a chemical taken orally must first pass through the liver, thereby increasing its chances of becoming metabolized and eliminated.

Half-life – the time it takes for a chemical/drug concentration to be decreased by 50%. A chemical with a half life of 5 days will be at 50% of its original concentration at the end of 5 days.

Hydrophilicity – water-loving and less likely to be absorbed into lipids (fats). Hates lipids.

Idiosyncratic Response – due to a genetic pre-disposition of an individual to overreact to a chemical

Lipophilicity – lipid-loving and more likely to be absorbed into lipids (fats). Hates water.

LOEL – the lowest level (dose/concentration) which produces an effect.

LOAEL – the lowest level (dose/concentration) which produces an adverse effect.

LD50 – the dose which produces lethality in 50% of the population tested.

NOEL – the highest level (dose/concentration) at which no effect occurs.

NOAEL – the highest level (dose/concentration) at which no adverse effect occurs.

Phase I – mechanism designed to…