Contemp Science: Health and Disease
Midterm Study Guide
1. Psychoactive Drugs a) Drug groups (and effects) 1. Cannibinoids- hashish, marijuana (euphoria, slowed thinking/reaction time, confusion, impaired balance and coordination) 2. Depressants- barbiturates (reduced anxiety, feeling of well-being, lowered inhibitions, slowed pulse and breathing, lowered blood pressure, poor concentration, sedation, drowsiness, unusual excitement, depression, fever, irritability, poor judgment, slurred speech, dizziness), benzodiazepines (sedation, drowsiness, dizziness), flunitrazepam (memory loss, visual and gastrointestinal disturbances, urinary retention), GHB (drowsiness, nausea/vomiting, headache, loss of consciousness, loss of reflexes, coma, seizures, death), methaqualone (euphoria, depression, poor reflexes, slurred speech, coma) 3. Dissociate Anesthetics- ketamine (increased heart rate and blood pressure, impaired motor function, delirium, depression, respiratory depression and arrest), PCP and analogs (possible decrease in blood pressure and heart rate, panic, aggression, violence) 4. Hallucinogens- LSD (altered states of perception and feeling, nausea, increased body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, loss of appetite, sleeplessness, numbness, weakness, tremors), mescaline (increased body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure), psilocybin (nervousness, paranoia) 5. Opioids and Morphine derivatives- codeine (pain relief, euphoria, drowsiness/nausea), fentanyl and fentanyl analog (pain relief, euphoria, drowsiness/nausea), heroin (staggering gait, pain relief, euphoria, drowsiness), morphine (pain relief, euphoria, drowsiness), opium (pain relief, euphoria, drowsiness), oxycodone HCL (pain relief, euphoria, drowsiness/nausea), hydrocodone bitartrate (pain relief, euphoria, drowsiness)/acetaminophen 6. Stimulants- hetamine (increased heart rate, blood pressure, metabolism, feelings of exhilaration, energy, increased mental alertness, rapid breathing), cocaine (increased temperature, nausea, abdominal pain), MDMA ( mild hallucinogenic effects, increased tactile sensitivity, empathetic feelings), methamphetamine (aggression, violence, psychotic behavior), methylphenidate, nicotine (additional effects attributable to tobacco exposure) 7. Other compounds- anabolic steroids (no intoxication effects), dextromethorphan (dissociative effects, distorted visual perceptions to complete dissociative effects), inhalants (stimulation, loss of inhibition, headache, nausea, vomiting, slurred speech, loss of motor coordination, wheezing)
*Some individuals take drugs to help cope with illness or stress. Others act on the brain, artificially fanning the pleasure we associate with sex and other self-gratifying behaviors
3 Organizations a person can use to get support: 1. Alcoholics Anonymous 2. Narcotics Anonymous 3. Marijuana Anonymous 4. Alanon
2. Digestion- breakdown of larger molecules into smaller molecules using enzymes a) The human digestive system includes: the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine (colon), rectum and anus. The salivary glands, liver, gallbladder and pancreas have accessory roles in digestion.
The mouth: food is chewed and moistened and polysaccharide digestion begins The Pharynx: passageway to tube part of digestive system and resp. system/moves food forward by contracting sequentially The esophagus: this collapsible tube is 10 inches long and moves food from pharynx to stomach The stomach: just below the diaphragm food is mixed with gastric juices (HCL) and it churns up food to form chyme, protein digestion begins at this point The small intestine= a tube measuring 1 in. in diameter and 10 feet in length, with internal walls covered in villi, that has three major functions- complete digestion of food, absorb end products of digestion into blood stream and lymph (fats and lipids) and