Vitamins: These are essential nutrients that your body needs. There are two types of vitamins: fat soluble and water soluble. Fat soluble Vitamins: These can be stored in the body so therefore they don’t have to be eaten daily. Water soluble vitamins: These are excreted in the urine so therefore a daily intake is necessary. When cooking these foods they lose many of the vitamins. A good way to protect these vitamins is to steam or grill foods rather than boiling them.
Vitamin A: This helps night vision, keeps the lining of nose, mouth and gut healthy, it is an antioxidant.
Vitamin D: This helps with the absorption of calcium in the intestine and it regulates the calcium and magnesium in bone tissue.
Vitamin E: This maintains healthy muscles; it’s an antioxidant and protects cell membranes.
Vitamin K: Helps with blood clotting.
Vitamin B: Helps release energy from carbohydrates, helps with the metabolism of fats and proteins, and its helps with the health and maintenance of nervous system.
Vitamin C: Helps with the formation of bones, teeth and blood, it also helps with wound healing and fighting infection. It helps protect your skin and gums and it is an antioxidant.
Vitamin A: Fish oil, liver, butter, cheese, eggs, milk fruit and vegetables.
Vitamin D: Fish liver, oily fish, eggs, milk, margarine and sunlight.
Vitamin E: Eggs, cereal oils, vegetable oils, nuts and seeds.
Vitamin K: Leafy vegetables (Spinach and cabbage), cheese and liver, asparagus, coffee, bacon and green tea.
Vitamin B: Liver, yeast, leafy green vegetables, nuts, milk and whole grain.
Vitamin C: Found in blackcurrants, citrus fruits, green vegetables, peppers and tomatoes.
Minerals: There are six major minerals found in foods; iron, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium. These are only needed in tiny amounts they are needed for chemical processes.
Iron: Iron is for the production of haemoglobin in red blood cells. It also helps with growth and it helps the immune system. Haemoglobin is the part that carries the oxygen without this a person will become anaemic.
Calcium: Calcium helps with the development of strong bones and teeth. Calcium is essential for blood clotting and helps the heart, muscles and nerves to work properly.
Iron: Iron can be found in the diet in foods such as dark green leafy vegetables, red meat, liver, apricots and dried fruits.
Calcium: good sources of calcium include milk, bread, flour, cheddar cheese and sardines(with bones)
Proteins: The body uses proteins to help with growth and repair. Proteins are made up of amino acids. Proteins are formed when amino acids are joined together in chains, these are called polypeptides. These are linked by covalent bonds. There are 20 different amino acids, which can combine to form different polypeptides.
Proteins are used for growth and repair. Proteins are in all tissues in the body including hair and bones. The body uses proteins for all types of activities such as messages travelling along nerves, digesting food and muscles contracting.
Proteins: These can be found in meant, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, soya and cheese.
Carbohydrates: There are two different types of carbohydrates, simple and complex.
Simple Carbohydrates: These are monosaccharides, this means that they are single molecules and they are easily digested by the body. Disaccharides are formed when two monosaccharides combine, and make lactose and maltose.
Complex carbohydrates: These release energy more slowly than simple carbohydrates so they will keep you satisfied for longer. These are polysaccharides and are made of many monosaccharides combined together. The carbohydrates have to be broken down into glucose before the cells can use the energy. Any extra glucose a hormone called insulin is released; this converts the extra glucose into glycogen. This is stored as body fat.
Carbohydrates provide energy for the body.