Motivation is similar to an internal energy individuals have, which drives them to do something in order to accomplish their goals or tasks. In other words, it is a drive force that initiates and directs behavior. In addition, motivation is a key aspect for any health care organization to have, and it is vital to acknowledge the basic theory and methods. For health care leaders or future managers, understanding the three motivational methods is significant in order to use them within the organization. Once, the three motivational methods have been acknowledged, than health care managers can start to see how the changes will affect the organization. In addition, the three motivational methods are equity, expectancy, and goal-setting theories. All of these three theories offer advice and perception on how individuals can truly make the best choices to work hard or not, which is likely based on their individuals’ preferences (Lombardi & Schermerhorn, 2007).
The equity theory of motivation was thought up by Stacy Adams in 1963 (Holocher & Kieslinger, 2011). Lombardi & Schermerhorn (2007) state, “the essence of the theory is that perceived inequity is a motivating state-that is, when people believe that they have been inequitably treated in comparison to others, they will try to eliminate the discomfort and restore a sense of equity to the situation” (Ch.10). In other words, Adams’ equity theory is the principle of balance or equity in the workplace. For example, when individuals feel fairly treated they are more likely to be motivated. Moreover, when they feel that they are being treated unfairly, then they are highly inclined to feel discouragement and demotivation. In other words, the way individuals measure this sense of fairness is at the fundamental of Adam’s equity theory. Furthermore, considerably similar to the five levels of needs by Maslow, Adams’ equity theory of motivation informs that the outputs and inputs should be reasonably equal for employees. If the balance is off to fair, then employees may work on the balance between inputs and outputs by requesting for recompense or acknowledgment.
The expectancy theory of motivation was created by Victor Vroom in 1964 (Holocher & Kieslinger, 2011). In addition, Victor’s expectancy theory states that the intensity of a tendency to perform in a particular manner is dependent on the intensity of an expectation that the performance will be followed by a definite outcome and on the appeal of the outcome to the individual (managementstudyguide.com, 2008). Lombardi & Schermerhorn (2007) state, “Expectancy theory suggest that –people will do what they can do when they want to do it” (Ch.10). Victor’s expectancy theory of motivation involves three factors: expectancy, instrumentality, and valence. For example, states that employee’s motivation is an outcome of how much an individual wants a reward (valence), the assessment that the likelihood that the effort will lead to expected performance (expectancy) and the belief that the performance will lead to reward (instrumentality) (managementstudyguide.com, 2008). Moreover, when these three interact together, it generates a motivational force for any employee to work in the direction of pleasure and avoid demotivation. However, Victor’s expectancy theory suggest, that individuals are motivated differently. In other words, some people are motivated by external rewards, like a paycheck, paid vacations, while other have more intrinsic motivators such as recognition. Furthermore, individuals are motivated to perform good in order to accomplish the outcome they wish to gain.
The goal-setting theory of motivation was made by Edwin Locke in 1960 (Holocher & Kieslinger, 2011). The theory was described as that goal setting is importantly link to employees’ task performances. Lombardi & Schermerhorn (2007) state, “the theory’s basic premise is that task goals can