There are three major contributors to the overall burden of death in Australia, these being Coronary Heart Disease, Cerebrovascular Disease and Peripheral Vascular Disease.
The nature of cardiovascular Disease:
Cardiovascular disease affects all areas of the heart, with that being the heart, blood and blood vessels. The trigger for cardiovascular disease is plaque formation. This is known as atherosclerotic plaque. This is caused by the build up of cholesterol, fat and other dangerous substances to the heart, which is found in the lining of the arteries. The build up of plaque stops and blocks the flow of blood to the heart which can cause a heart attack, or it blocks the flow to the brain thus causing a stroke.
Cholesterol- is a lipid(fat) which is manufactured by the liver to keep the bidy functioning. to much cholesterol can build up in the arteries and clog them causing the blocking of blood flow.
Atherosclerotic plaque- this is an abnormal build up in the arteries which contain cholesterol, fat and other substances.
Saturated fat- this is a solid fat that sets at room temperature and is the fat that leads to increased levels of cholesterol and can cause blocked arteries. it is dangerous if the fat has been over consumed. It is us ally found in butter, lard and meat fat.
Unsaturated fat- unsaturated fats are a better type of fats as it tends to lower the cholesterol levels in the body and lowers the chance of having a blocked artery. this fat comes from plant extracts such as corn, peanuts and margarine. Coronary heart disease: coronary heart disease is the most common type of cardio vascular disease. there are two major forms of coronary heart diesase, which are known as angina of heart attack. heart attacks are life threatening. these occur becuase of a blood vessel that is blocked thus stops the blood flow to the heart and causes damage to the heart muscle. symptoms of an heart attack include chest pains, shrotness of breath and tingling down the left side of the body. angina is a chronic from of coronary heart disease. this involves short episodes of chest pains, which lasts a long time until treated or death. this occurs when the heart has no supply to blood for a short time period. this is mainly cause by plaque build up along the walls of an artery. in 2007, it was estimated that 684 000 individuals suffered from long term coronary heart disease, while 352 000 suffered from angina and 450 000 suffered from a heart attack.
Cerebrovascular disease includes disorders that will prevent the brain or its membranes from blood, thus which leads to a stoke, which is the main cause of deaths from Cerebrovascular disease. in 2008 it was estimated that 322 540 individuals had suffered from a stroke.
Peripheral vascular disease: peripheral vascular disease is a disease that blocks or causes a reduction due to a build up of plaque, that stops or minimises the circulation of blood around the body. statistics show that both men and women suffer from this disease. in 2006 it was recorded that men suffered from this disease at a rate of approx 15.1 deaths every 100 000 individuals, while on the other hand females were 7.8 deaths per 100 000.
The extent of cardiovascular disease:
Cardiovascular Disease is the biggest killer in Australia, making up for approximately 35% of all deaths in Australia. Australia's incidence trends are increasing, due to more funding being allocated in the areas of prevention and detection. It is also because of lifestyle choices made by an individual e.g. smoking, poor diet. Trends show that as an individual's age increases, the more likely they are to develop a cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular Disease also contains the highest percentage of long term disease, with the