Public Pay = Public provision
This consists of healthcare that is designed to meet the cost of all our essential healthcare needs, paid for via the government. In some countries, the funding is controlled by an agency of the government or by an entire population. When tax is the primary way of financing healthcare, it gives everyone and equal level of cover regardless of their financial circumstances.
Public Pay = Private Provision
This is where we pay a small amount of tax but it’s provided by a private hospital. Government is the purchaser not provider. Care can be provided by private hospitals. I.e. Clatterbridge and Renacres.
Private pay = Private Provision
This is where all health care is privately funded and healthcare is received in private hospitals. Examples of this, is through Bupa.
Out of Pocket Expenses
Out-of-pocket expenses are what you pay for health-related services above and beyond your monthly premium. Depending on your health plan, these expenses may include an annual deductible, coinsurance, and co-payments for doctor visits and prescription drugs.
Left Wing = Labour (Socialist)
Right Wing = Conservatives (Capitalist)
Mid-Way = Liberal Democrats
Socialism is where a community/society, rather than private individuals take ownership of a production and distribution system. For example, we pay tax and all own a share of the NHS. It gives them all an equal opportunity in sharing the work and the products. However, it can cause some people to become lazy, as they still get the same as the person who works hard. (Right Side News, 2009) It is a form of government that owns, regulates, and administrates the production and distribution of goods and services. Another common definition of socialism is a form of government that attempts to reduce social, economic, medical, and political inequalities among its people by providing basic services.
Karl Marx described “Socialism as a lower form of communism and held the opinion that socialism was an intermediary step in moving from Capitalism to Communism.” (Sited on Your Dictionary.com)
He had the idea that we are a product of our own environment. If we are poor, or unwell, it’s due to society and how it controls the individual. He argues that inequality is caused by our access to, or lack of structures.
Socialism is based on individuals paying a higher tax, but with the Government funding all expenses. The benefits to this are:
Everyone has equal access to healthcare and benefits. We all have a right to equality.
Tax free treatment
National control leads to standard practice
It increases workers’ rights. Everyone pays in, so everyone receives the same outcome.
The negatives to this are:
Longer waiting times for treatment or Doctors due to free healthcare.
Over use of treatments
Overly expensive and in National debt (Economics Help, 2014)
Limitations of tests and treatments
Canada is a good example of a socialised healthcare system. Under this system, citizens are provided preventative care and medical treatments from primary care physicians as well as access to hospitals, dentists and other additional medical needs. With very few exceptions, everyone qualifies for health care regardless of medical history, personal income or their standard of living. (Canadian Health care, 2004-2007)
The downsides to this system using Canada as an example, is in 2001 Canada’s healthcare topped $100 billion dollars. (Canadian Health Care, 2004-2007)
This level of costs can cause detrimental effects on the national economy.
Increased waiting times also become a concern. Even though everyone has equal access, it causes demands on all areas of care.
Capitalism is based on the theory that we, as an individual, contribute more than the government. We pay a low amount of tax, but we provide our own pensions and make savings to