Healthy 1 Study Guide Essay

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Health Study Guide Chapter 5:

LESSON 1:

1.) NUTRITION: the process by which the body takes in and uses food
-Certain foods produce different benefits or bad health effects.
-Good nutrition enhances quality of life and prevents disease.

2.) CALORIES/KILOCALORIES: units of heat that measure the energy used by the body and the energy that foods supply to the body

3.) NUTRIENTS: substances in your body that your body needs to grow, to repair itself and to supply you with energy.

4.) Physical NEED for Food vs. Psychological DESIRE for food
-HUNGER: physical drive that protects you from starvation
-When your stomach is empty, walls contract stimulating nerve endings. The nerves signal the brain that your body needs food. When you intake food, the walls are stretched, the nerves are not stimulated and stomach is satisfied.
-APPETITE: psychological desire, rather than a need, to eat
-Emotions and factors in your environment determine your appetite for food, dissimilar from HUNGER

5.) FOOD IS EATEN TO MEET EMOTIONAL MEANS  stressed, frustrated, depressed, bored, as a reward  results in weight gain and unhealthful eating

6.) HOWEVER, if upset and do not eat, your body may not get proper nutrients. Therefore, you must recognize when your emotions are controlling your eating habits.

7.) FOOD AND THE ENVIRONMENT
-family, friends, and peers
-adults have planned your meal since you were young  you prefer those foods since you’ve been grown eating them
-friends and peers may influence you to try new and different foods
-cultural and ethnic background
-ethnicity and culture influence your eating lifestyle (Ex. some ethnic groups may eat more fruits and vegetables, others may use oils and salt)
-convenience and cost
-cost of foods may be a top priority (Ex. busy families may want quick and prepared meals for convenience)
-advertising
-commercials influence your decision on food

LESSON 2:

1.) 6 Nutrient Groups: CARBOHYDRATES, PROTEINS, FATS, VITAMINS, MINERALS, AND WATER

2.) CARBOHYDRATES: sugars and starches present in foods; made up of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen
-Primary source of energy
-4 Calories/1 Gram
-classified as either SIMPLE or COMPLEX
-simple carbohydrates: sugars like fructose and lactose, found in fruit and milk
-sucrose: (most notable one) in sugarcane, sugar beets, and many other plants; refined to make table sugar
-complex carbohydrates: starches, found in grain, seeds, nuts, legumes (dried peas and beans) and tubers (root vegetables like potato) -55-60% of your calories are complex carbohydrates
-Body must break them down into simple carbs to use for energy

3.) ROLE OF CARBOHYDRATES:
-carbohydrates  GLUCOSE (the body’s main source of energy)
-glucose that is not used right away stored in liver and muscles as GLYCOGEN (starch like substance; converted to glucose when energy is needed)
-body takes in more carbohydrates then it can use  body stores the excess carbohydrates as BODY FAT

4.) FIBER: indigestible complex carbohydrate found in tough, stringy parts of vegetables, fruits, and grains
-cannot be digested and used as energy, but helps move waste through digestive system to help prevent intestinal problems (Ex. constipation)
-reduces risk of heart disease
-some fibers  help control diabetes by reducing blood glucose levels
-eat 20 to 35 grams of fiber per day: fruits and vegetables with edible skins, grains (Ex. oatmeal), bran cereal, and brown rice

5.) PROTEINS: nutrients that help build and maintain body cells and tissues
-made of long chains of amino acids
-your body can make 11/20 amino acids that make protein
-ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS: the rest, 9/20, must be obtained from foods you eat
-classified as COMPLETE or INCOMPLETE PROTEINS
-complete protein: contain good amount of the NINE ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS
-fish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese, yogurt and many soybean products
-incomplete protein: lack one or…