1. Mechanisms of evolution: pre and post zygotic
2. Pesticide resistance insects (same idea as antibiotic resistance bacteria)
3. Anti-biotic resistance bacteria
4. Types of natural selection: stabilizing, directional, disruptive
5. Allele frequency: lab activity
6. Genetic drift and bottleneck effect
7. Constructions of phylogenetic trees and analysis
8. Natural selection
9. Sexual selection/ non-random mating
10. Catastrophism, actualism, uniformitarianism, spontaneous generation
12. Sympatric and allopatric speciation
13. Ways to increase genetic variation
14. Gene flow
16. Darwin’s observations
17. Divergent and convergent evolution
18. Homologous and analogous structures
19. Artificial selection
Pg 319 # 1-17, 20, 32
Pg 322 # 1-8, 16, 17
Pg 342 # 1,2 5, 10, 11, 14
Pg 346 # 3, 4, 8, 10, 11
Pg 379 # 1-7, 10, 11, 16, 21, 35, 37, 40
Pg 382 # 1-10, 13, 14, 20, 25,
Pg 387 # 1-3, 5-7, 9-11, 17, 22, 27, 41, 51, 53, 56,
Pg 392 # 1—8, 10, 15, 17, 21
Mechanisms of Evolution: Pre and Post Zygotic
A barrier that either impedes mating between species or prevents fertilization of the eggs if individuals from different species attempt to mate.
Behavioral Isolating Mechanisms: Distinct mating ritual that prevents different species mating. For example, Male jumping spider use an elaborate dance in which they shake their legs and wave their palps. Females of different species do not respond to the dance.
Habitat Isolating Mechanisms:
Species that occupy separate habitats or separate niches of the same habitat do not encounter one other to reproduce. For example, Ground squirrel species occupy different habitats. Ground hogs live in fields at lower elevations while marmots live in alpine meadows.
Temporal Isolating Mechanisms:
Compatible species that inhabit an overlapping range but mate at different times. Example, Different species of cacti bloom in either the night or day.
Mechanical Isolating Mechanisms:
Structural differences in reproductive organs can prevent copulation. Example: pollen sacs in lady's slipper orchid become attached to an insect, but they are not removed by any other kind of flower.
Gametic Isolating Mechanisms:
Prevents fertilization at the molecular level, Example giant clams release sperm and eggs in to pen water, gametes recognize one another by molecular markers.
A barrier that prevents hybrid zygotes from developing into viable, fertile individuals
Genetic incompatibility of the interbred species may stop development of the hybrid zygote during its development Example, hybrid embryos between sheep and goats die in early development before birth
Sometimes, two species can mate and reproduce hybrid offspring but a reproductive barrier still exists between the two species and the hybrid is sterile. Example, offspring of horse and donkey is a mule which is sterile.
The first generation hybrids of crossed species are viable and fertile, but when these hybrids mate which each other or which an individual from either parent species, offspring of the next generation are either weak or sterile. Example, different species of cotton plants can produce fertile hybrids but the offspring of the hybrids die as seed or in early development.
Pesticide resistance insects (same idea as antibiotic resistance bacteria)
Antibiotic Resistance Bacteria:
Antibiotics will kill off an infection only when taken in the right dose and for the full length of the prescription. Forget a pill, and the strongest bacteria could survive the attack. These strong bacteria could then reproduce and pass their "tough" genes to the next generation of bacteria. the next time you take antibiotics, the new bacteria will have an inborn survival trait that makes them resistant to the same drug you took before.
Bacteria also mutate when