There are three main types of hearing losses. They are conductive, sensorineural, and mixed. The type of hearing loss depends upon where in the ear the problem occurs. With conductive hearing loss there is a problem in the external or middle ear that prevents sound from reaching the nerves in the inner ear. External otitis; also known as swimmers ear can also be a cause of conductive hearing loss. Other causes include excessive cerumen or presence of a foreign body in the ear canal. Infections involving a hair follicle called furuncle or involving multiple hair follicles called carbuncle where an abscess may form can also be a cause. Benign masses may also be found in the external ear causing the ear to become red and inflamed. Your patient will be complaining of pain radiating inward on the affected side. Absence of or malformation of the outer ear, ear canal, or middle ear may also cause conductive hearing loss. Otitis media is the most common cause of hearing loss in the middle ear and usually follows an upper respiratory infection. The patient would be experiencing fever, earache and feeling of fullness in the affected ear. A perforated or ruptured tympanic membrane resulting from trauma or exposure to loud noise or repeated infections causing pressure on the membrane can also cause conductive hearing loss. The stapes in the middle ear can develop ostosclerosis preventing it from vibrating which will prevent sound from getting to the inner ear. This begins progressively mainly in women after the age of forty. If prompt medical or surgical treatments are done, permanent hearing loss may be avoided. Treatments for conductive hearing loss include removal of cerumen build up by irrigating the ear canal. If there is fluid trapped in the ear; procedures such as paracentesis using a needle or a myringtomy which makes an incisionis in the tympanic membrane will allow fluid to drain or be suctioned out of the middle ear. A surgery called a myringoplasty can also be done to repair a damaged tympanic membrane. A stapedectomy can also be done to remove a damaged stapes and replace it with prosthesis. Hearing aids are also another treatment commonly used to assist your patient with their hearing loss. Another type of hearing loss known as sensorineural hearing loss; also known as nerve hearing loss occurs in the inner part of the ear. The damaged nerves of the inner ear do not properly transmit the signals to the auditory centers of the brain. There are many causes, differing by age of onset. They can occur before or during birth from perinatal infections, heredity, and asphyxia at birth, low birth weight, or defects of the head and neck. Other causes can be from an infection or inflammation of the inner ear known as a labyrinthitis. This can also be caused by drug toxicity from some antibiotics, as well as some diuretics. Overindulgence of alcohol or some allergies have also been related to hearing loss. A couple of the most common signs of an inner ear infection are vertigo and tinnitus. Other symptoms include pain, fever, ataxia, nausea, and vomiting. The natural degeneration of the organ of Corti known as Presbycusis; or Neoplastic disorders such as inner ear tumors can also causes sensorineural hearing loss. Acoustic neuroma, a tumor of the eighth cranial nerve, is the most common benign tumor. Symptoms include unilateral loss of high pitched sounds, unilateral tinnitus as well as intermediate vertigo. Headache and balance disorders may also be present. A balance disorder called Meniere’s disease involves a group of symptoms including deafness, tinnitus, vertigo, and sensation of fullness or pressure in the ears. Acute episodes can last 2 to4 hours at a time. The symptoms will resolve after several weeks but the hearing loss in the affected ear remain and your patient will experience some degree of permanent hearing loss. Normal conversation levels occur at about 60 decibels. Prolonged exposure to loud noises above 90
Hearing Paper: Otitis Media
University of Montana
Middle ear disease and middle ear infection are two of the many ways to refer to otitis media, an inflammation of the middle ear. Despite its many names, otitis media has only one primary cause, Eustachian (auditory) tube dysfunction. There are many risk factors that may prevent proper Eustachian tube function and which may ultimately result in a conductive hearing loss (Klein, 1994).
The Eustachian tube is described in…
1. What is the definition of emotional and behavioral disorders?
* Emotionally Disturbed (ED)
* Disabilities Education Act’s definition – children who have difficulty making or maintaining interpersonal relationships, have deficits in learning that are not explained by sensory, intellectual or health factors, and have inappropriate behavior or feelings under normal circumstances
* Pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression, and/or the tendency to develop physical symptoms…
6.) Meniere’s Disease – Is a disorder of the inner ear that can affect hearing and balance to a varying degree. It is characterized by episodes of vertigo and tinnitus and progressive hearing loss, though usually in one ear. It affects daily life because for some, sounds appear tiny or distorted and may experience unusual sensitivity to noises. In addition, you may experience a sensation…
have some kind of hearing loss. These ten percent suffer from unfair treatment from professional, social and government service providers, including court and police”. Obviously, because deaf and hard of hearing have limited hearing, their communication and social skills are below a common hearing person. Therefore, most of these people are ignored, neglected, and discriminated against. However, a citizen protected by the American with Disabilities Act, deaf and hard of hearing people deserve equal…
1. Amblyopia – reduced vision in an eye without a detectable organic lesion.
2. Analgesics – relief of pain.
3. Ankylosis – immobility of a joint.
4. Audiogram – the record of a hearing test.
5. Diplopia – double vision.
6. Histoplasmosis – a systemic respiratory disease caused by a fungus.
7. Laser photocoagulation – coagulation of the blood vessels in the eye using a laser.
8. Macula – a small spot or a colored area…
Shanta Everington reviews ‘A Loss for Words’ by Lou Ann Walker, an autobiographical account of her life as the hearing daughter of profoundly deaf parents. (Review first published in Audacity Magazine, June 2006) |
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Walker’s memoir, written from a hearing person’s perspective, explores the dynamics between deaf and hearing culture and the unique role occupied by children of deaf parents, who move between deaf or hearing worlds, often feeling as though they…
with Klinefelter's syndrome should be treated with testosterone, usually at 11 or 12 years of age. Treatments could include Restandol tablets, which does not affect the liver, or with injections of other testosterone preparations.
Klinefelter boys more often than other boys have delayed motor function, speech, and maturation development, which does not make them patients demanding special treatment. If the speech development is delayed, it is important to get help from a speech-therapist for a…
Murphy Odone was only 5 years old when he was diagnosed with this leathal disease. It all began when his teachers started noticing weird rage outburst temper tantrums at school. Then he developed more strange symptoms such as hearing loss, not being able to stay balanced , and loss of vision. Its a rare disease that only boys ages 5-10 can have. Its passed down from their mothers but the mom could never get sick because its sex linked her second X chromosome protects her, all she can be is a carrier…
As a medical professional, there will be times when you are faced with patients who have difficulties such as visual impairment or hearing impairment. Both of these issues deem the person to be a part of a ‘marginalized’ population; however, this should lend any different form of medical treatment. It should, though, cause medical professionals to spend a bit more quality time in caring for these individuals.
A patient with visual impairment is not necessarily completely blind. Many patients still…
relationships and doing things
Factors that affect cognitive function:
• Previous injury
• Medication, drugs, alcohol
• Fluid and electrolyte imbalance
• Cognitive changes occur
• Process of aging is unique
• Memory (severe loss is not normal)
• Changes are not progressive
• Information retrieval
• Intellectual ability
Mental Status Exam:
• Basis for understanding what you are seeing with the person and their functional capabilities