Henry VI was born on December 6, 1421 to Henry V and Catharine of Valois. When his father died on August 31, 1422, he became King of England at the age of eight months old. Just a few weeks later, his grandfather, Charles VI, died, leaving Henry as the King of France in accordance the Treaty of Troyes, which was written in 1420. On September 28, 1423, the nobles of England swore their loyalty to King Henry. They then called Parliament together in his name and established a regency council -- a group of people selected to act as head of state while the ruler is underage. Henry’s uncle John, Duke of Bedford, was appointed the senior regent of England and France and was also put in charge of the ongoing war in France. During Bedford’s absence, the government was headed by Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, Henry V’s other brother was appointed Protector and Defender of the “Realm”. His only duties were to keep the peace in England and to summon Parliament when necessary. Henry V’s half-uncle, Henry Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester (and later Cardinal), also had a place on the council. Starting in 1428, Henry VI’s tutor was Richard de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick. Henry had two half-brothers, Edmund and Jasper Tudor through his widowed mother’s relationship with Owen Tudor. These two were later given earldoms, and Edmund Tudor would eventually become the father of Henry Tudor who would gain the throne as King Henry VII. Soon after Charles VII of Valois was crowned as the French King on July 17, 1429, Henry was crowned King of England at Westminster Abby on November 9, 1429, followed by his own coronation as King of France at Notre Dame de Paris on December 16, 1431. However it was not until November 13, 1437, a month before his sixteenth birthday, that he gained any measure of his own authority. He had shown an indication of his willingness to become involved in administration in 1434 when writs temporally changed their dating from Westminster to Cirencester, where the king was at the time. Henry finally assumed his full royal powers when he came of age in 1437, the year his mother died. However, because of his shy and pious nature and his dislike of deceit and bloodshed, he allowed his court to be run by a few noble favorites who disagreed on the matter of the French war. After the death of King Henry V, England had lost the upper hand in the Hundred Years’ War, while France only gained ground. The young king Henry came to favor a peace policy in France and thus agreed with Cardinal Beaufort and William de la Pole, Earl of Suffolk, who had similar thoughts. Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, and Richard, Duke of York, who argued for a continuation of the war, were ignored. Cardinal Beaufort and William de la Pole told the king that the best way of obtaining peace with France was through a marriage with Margaret of Anjou, the niece of King Charles VII. Henry agreed, especially when he heard of Margaret’s beauty, and sent William to negotiate with King Charles. Charles agreed, but on the condition that he would not have to pay any sort of dowry, and would instead receive the lands of Maine and Anjou from the English. These had been conditions agreed to in the Treaty of Tours, but the cession of Maine and Anjou was kept secret from parliament, because it was known that it would be highly unpopular with the English people. The marriage took place at Titchfield Abby on April 23, 1445, one month after Margaret’s 15th birthday. Henry was afraid of giving Maine and Anjou to Charles, knowing that it would be opposed by the English people and the Dukes of Gloucester. However, Margaret was determined to make it happen. When the treaty became known to the public in 1446, the people’s anger was focused on the Duke of Suffolk but Henry and Margaret did their best to protect him. In 1447 the King and Queen called the Duke of Gloucester to stand before parliament on the charge of treason. This was instigated by Gloucester’s enemies, the Earl
Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1 is a great play that is worth producing. Especially on a college campus like Vanderbilt, the audience can identify with the themes of the coming of age of Hal and the father/son dynamic. The play is entertaining through both comic relief scenes and fights. One strength of the play is the complex characters that make good roles for actors. Many scenes include the actors delivering lines alone and have to illustrate character development to…
English poet & playwright, famous for comedies, tragedies, historical plays and sonnets. Most well-known author in English literature. EARLY YEARS Probably born April 23rd 1564 (no one knows his true birthday) in Stratford-upon-Avon in England He lived and wrote during a period of time known as the Elizabethan Era, when Queen Elizabeth I ruled England. He attended Grammar school to study arithmetic, geometry, music, astronomy, and Latin (international language in Europe)…
“Virgin Queen” was
because she was
“married to England.”
When he becomes
king he changes
religion to Catholicism
to unite France
“Paris is worth a
Signs Edict of Nantes
Catherine de Medicis
Plays both sides of
Sides with Guises to
avoid war with Spain
Catholic League and
I. Essays The Beginning of the Tudor Dynasty, 1485- 1509
Who was Richard III, and why was he vulnerable to a challenge to his right to rule? Who was Henry of Richmond, and on what basis could he claim the throne? Given the difference between these two men’s claims, why did Henry of Richmond manage to win so much support?
Richard III (1452-1485) was the third son of Richard, Duke of York, (1441-1460) and Cecily Neville (1415-1495), and the younger brother to Edward IV (1442-1483), King of England…
War of the Roses and the Connection with the Hundred Year War Bibliography
Abbott, Jacob, History of Margaret of Anjou, Queen of Henry VI of England. New York: Harper and Brothers Publishing, 1871.
Gormley, Larry. “Wars of the Roses.” (2005) <http://www.warsoftheroses.com/> (22 December 2005).
Griffiths, Ralph A. The Reign of King Henry VI. Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing Limited, 1998.
Mauer, Helen." Margaret of Anjou ” Richard III Society, American Branch (2001) <http://www.r3…
as it had York put back onto the royal roster, and had Henry know there was a threat. However, in 1459 the Battle of Ludford bridge commenced – this was very significant as the King’s wife, Margaret of Anjou commanded the Lancastrians against Richard, Duke of York. Richard fled to Ludlow, and his army refused to fight as King Henry turned up and they said their fight was against ‘Henry’s evil councillors’ this was significant as it showed Henry what their true cause was. The battle of Wakefield…
Henry VII (1485-1509)
Britain was financially weakened by the hundred years War and the wars of the Roses.
There were too many ‘over-mighty’ noblemen who used their own wealth to build-up private armies of their own which could be of use against henry himself.
Issues of legitimacy:
Henry VII’s claim to the throne was scrutinised for being illegitimate.
Three people had a stronger claims to the throne (Elizabeth of York; The Earl of Warwick; The Earl of Lincoln)
Why were the Yorkists successful in gaining the crown by 1461?
By 1461 Henry VI was already in hiding up North leaving England under no real leader. The conflict that led to Henry’s flee was his weak personality and his poor control and authority. However this isn’t the only reason why the Yorkists were successful in gaining the crown by 1461 there are many other reasons.
One main factor for the Yorkists gaining the crown was their military strength. The Yorkists had huge military power. The…
Peter. He was taught by John Gratian, later Pope Gregory VI, introducing him to the world of the papacy. While Hildebrand served as a chaplain under Gregory VI, he also witnessed the act of simony for which the Pope was exiled (Blumenthal). This act of simony, or the purchase of a religious office, was later to be one of the primary corruptions against which Pope Gregory VII would fight.
After retiring to Cologne with the exiled Gregory VI until his death in AD 1047, Hildebrand accompanied the newly…
EDWARD VI, King of England and Ireland was born at Greenwich on the 12th of October 1537. He was the only child of Henry VIII by his third wife, Jane Seymour, who died of puerperal fever twelve days later. Edward VI was a frail child and a short life was expected from him from his early years. This did not prevent a strenuous education. Until the age of six, he was naturally left in the charge of women, but when he was only seven, his tutor Dr Coxe writes that he could decline any Latin noun and…