Henry Viii of England and King Montezuma King Essay examples

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Chapter 12

The period of European history at the close of the Middle Ages and the rise of the modern world.

Lorenzo de’ Medici
He was an Italian statesman and de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic during the Italian Renaissance.

Niccolo Machiavelli a statesman of Florence who advocated a strong central government

Rena issance Art Quiz (Notes on Schoology)

3 New Attributes to Renaissance Art
Movement, perspective, human anatomy

Martin Luther
German theologian who led the Reformation; believed that salvation is granted on the basis of faith rather than deeds

Allow oneself to enjoy thce allow oneself to enjoy the pleasure of:

Edict of Worms

John Calvin


Reformation in England
Just as much religious as political

Act of Supremacy

King Henry VIII

Catherine of Aragon

Anne Boleyn

Jane Seymour

Anne of Cleves

Catherine Howard

Katherine Parr

Edward VI

Bloody Mary


Catholic Reformation (Counter Reformation)

3 pillars of Catholic Reformation (listed below)


Reform of Papacy

Council of Trent

Ignatius of Loyala



Bartholomeu Dias
Makes it to bottom of Africa then his crew made him go back.

Vasco da Gama
Completes the voyage, goes to bottom of Africa and then makes it to India then returns to Portugal with spices and gets rich.

Christopher Columbus
Italian, trouble getting sponsored, 4 voyages, died believing he made it to the Indies.

John Cabot
He explores for England, and discovers (the New England Coast)

Amerigo Vespucci
The term America comes from him.

Ferdinand Magellan
First to circumnavigate the globe, lands in the Philippines. Then he was shot by a poisonous arrow and died. 200 men started on the voyage…18 came back alive.

Queen Isabella, King Ferdinand
Sponsor Columbus on the 3rd attempt of him asking them.

Hernan Cortes
Conquers the Aztecs and their King Montezuma, Cortes and conquistadors destroy them.

King Montezuma
King of Aztecs conquered by the conquistadors.


3 motives for exploration
God, Glory, Gold

Why trade became more difficult via land in 14th century
Ottoman Turks attacking people on trade trails.

Understanding Portugal’s impact on trade
Portuguese were first to come into the slave merchants that already existed in Africa. And it kept on growing from then.

Treaty of Tordesillas
Line of demarcation, between Portugal and Spain, They wanted to split of the exploring and do their own thing so the treaty made an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean that each other couldn’t cross.

Spanish Soldiers


Triangular trade diagram
America’s (sugar, tobacco, cotton)→Europe (Guns, Cloth)→Africa (slaves)

Middle Passage

Origin of slave trade in Africa with Portuguese

Chapter 14

French Wars of Religion
The name of a period of civil infighting and military operations, primarily fought between French Catholics and Protestants.

Edict of Nantes
Issued on 13 April 1598, by Henry IV of France, granted the Calvinist Protestants of France substantial rights in a nation still considered essentially Catholic. In the Edict, Henry aimed primarily to promote civil unity.

Philip II
Son of Louis VII whose reign as king of France saw wars with the English that regained control of Normandy and Anjou and most of Poitou

Elizabeth I
Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn; she succeeded Mary I (who was a Catholic) and restored Protestantism to England; during her reign Mary Queen of Scots was executed and the Spanish Armada was defeated

Spanish Armada
A fleet of warships.

“Protestant Wind”

Thirty Years War

English Revolution

Divine right of kings



Oliver Cromwell

“Glorious Revolution”

William of Orange

Results of Glorious Revolution

A system in which a ruler