HESI Study Guide 1 Essay

Submitted By Claudia-LinaresVique
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Pages: 33

Meds
Diuretics
Loop diuretics (e.g. Furosemide [Lasix])
S/E: dry mouth, thirst, N&V, hypokalemia, easy bruising. Monitor K+ levels, leg cramps
Infuse slowly, no faster than 20mg/min
Ototoxic drug - Check hearing
Thiazide diuretics (e.g. Hydrochlorothiazide [HydroDIURIL])
NOT potassium sparing
Used in tx of heart failure
Potassium sparing diuretics (e.g. Spironolactone [Aldactone])
Osmotic diuretics (e.g. Mannitol [Osmitrol]) sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate) removes potassium through large intestine to be excreted through bowel movements

Glucocorticoids
Dexamethaxone, Hydrocortisone, Methylprednisolone, Prednisolone, Prednisone, Budesonide nebulizer

Pain Medications
Non-opioid analgesics
NSAIDs (e.g. Aspirin, Ibuprofen, Naproxen, Celebrex)
Acetaminophen
Acetylcysteine (Mucomyst)
Antidote for Acetaminophen toxicity, most beneficial when started w/in 10 hrs. of overdose, still beneficial if started w/in first 24 hrs. Therapeutic levels are 5-20 mcg/m.; toxic levels are >150 mcg/ml.
Opioid analgesics
Strong opioid agonists (e.g. Morphine, Fentanyl, Meperidine, Methadone, Hydromorphone)
Moderate to strong opioid agonists (e.g. Codeine, Oxycodone, Hydrocodone)
Opioid antagonist (e.g. Nalaxone [Narcan])
Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA)
Regional Pain Management (epidural, local nerve blocks)
Local anesthetics for procedural pain (e.g. EMLA, ELA-Max, Numby Stuff)

Antimicrobials
General Concepts (e.g. selective toxicity, acquired drug resistance)
Antibacterials
Penicillins (e.g. Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, Penicillin G)
Cephalosporins (e.g. Cefaclor, Cefotaxime, Ceftazidime, Ceftriaxone) cephalexin (Keflex) – s/e: loose foul-smelling stools and vaginal itching = superinfection notify MD
Carbapenems ( e.g. Imipenem, Meropenem, Ertapenem)
Vancomycin
Tetracyclines (e.g. tetracyline, doxycycline); Macrolides (e.g. erythromycin); others (e.g. clindamycin)
Aminoglycosides (e.g. gentamycin, amikacin, noemycin, tobramycin)
They are bactericidal, but can also be ototoxic and nephrotoxic, meaning that they can be harmful to the client's hearing and kidneys.
Renal function should be assessed by checking serum BUN and creatinine levels monitoring intake and output monitoring the daily weight
The client should also be assessed for any adverse effects on his/her hearing, such as tinnitus or vertigo.
Finally, the nurse should notify the physician of any concurrent Lasix use because of that drug's nephrotoxic potential as well
Sulfonamides & Trimethoprim (e.g. Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim [Bactrim, Septra, Cotrim])
Antifungals (e.g. Amphotericin B – protect with bag, flush with d5w, fever will go up and down, infuse over 2-6 hrs Itraconazole, Flucytosine)
Antivirals (e.g. Acyclovir, Gancyclovir)

Respiratory Medications
Antivirals (e.g. Amantadine, Rimantadine)
Flu vaccine (Seasonal flu, HINI)
Decongestant Drugs (Sympathomimetics) (e.g. Pseudoephedrine [Sudafed], Phenylephrine [Neo-Synephrine], Oxymetazoline [Afrin 12-Hour])
Antihistamines (e.g. Diphenhydramine [Benadryl], Cetirizine [Zytec], Loratadine [Claritin], Fexofenadine [Allegra])
Antitussives (e.g. Opioids – Codeine, Nonopioids – Dextromethorphan)
Expectorants (e.g. Guafenesin)
Mucolytics (e.g. Acetylcysteine [Mucomyst])
TB antimicrobials (e.g. Isoniazid, Rifampin, Pyrazinamide, Ethambutol, Streptomycin)
Asthma medications
Quick relief meds
SABAs [Albuterol]
Oral glucocorticoids [Prednisone]
Anticholinergics [Ipratropium])
Long term control meds
Inhaled glucocorticoids [e.g. Beclothemathasone]
Cromolyn sodium
Leukotrien modifiers [e.g. Zileuton, Montelukast, Zafirlukast) – children should chew the pill
Immunomodulators [e.g. Omalizumab]
LABAs [e.g. Salmetrol]
Methylxanthines [e.g. Theophylline]

Cardiac Medications
Dyslipidemia meds
HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (e.g. Statins); Niacin; Bile acid sequestrants (e.g. Cholestyramine, Colesevelam, Colestipol); Zetia; Fish oil
Grapefruit juice interacts with this medication and should be avoided. This medication should be taken…