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AP Chemistry – Chapters 1 and 2

AP Study Guide for Chapter 1

Students should be able to...
Define chemistry
Describe the difference between mass and weight
Describe the difference between chemical and physical change
Describe the difference between accuracy and precision
Describe the five states of matter, and give an example of each
List the SI base units for length, mass, volume, time, and temperature
List and convert using the SI prefixes: kilo-, centi-, milli-, micro-, and nano-
Convert temperatures from and to degrees Celsius to Kelvin (add 273.15), or degrees Farenheit)
Convert mass, length, and volume between the SI and English systems (2.54 cm = 1 inch, 454 g = 1 pound, .946 L = 1 quart)
Calculate the density of a solid (mass / volume)
Express numbers in scientific notation
Express scientific notation in decimal form
Compute numbers in scientific notation using a calculator
Be familiar with the following terms: atom, element, molecule, compound, mixture, homogeneous, heterogeneous, extensive, intensive
Decide if a digit in a number is "significant"
Round answers to arithmetic problems to reflect the precision of the number

AP Study Guide for Chapter 2

Students should be able to...
Describe Dalton's atomic theory.
Count protons, neutrons, and electrons in an isotope.
Know properties of protons, neutrons, and electrons including: symbol, mass number, location, and relative charge.
Describe the Rutherford experiment, and how it proved the existence of the nucleus.
Describe the Millikan experiment.
Write isotopes in hyphen notation and nuclear symbol notation.
Define: atomic number, mass number, average atomic mass, group/family, period/series, ionic bond, covalent bond
Know names of Group IA, IIA, VIIA, and noble gases; actinides and lanthanides
Describe the formation of ions from atoms
Know common polyatomic ions
Find the oxidation number (Roman numeral) of an element, either free or in a compound
Write the name from the formula and write the formula from the name of these types of inorganics: binary ionic compounds, binary compounds composed of 2 nonmetals, ternary compounds, binary acids, and ternary acids
Old AP test questions – Copyright College Board

33. Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from J. J. Thomson’s cathode ray experiments?
a. Atoms contain electrons.
b. Practically all the mass of an atom is con­tained in its nucleus.
c. Atoms contain protons, neutrons, and elec­trons.
d. Atoms have a positively charged nucleus sur­rounded by an electron cloud.
e. No two electrons in one atom can have the same four quantum numbers.

45. A measured mass of an unreactive metal was dropped into a small graduated cylinder half filled with water. The following measurements were made. Mass of metal = 19.611 grams Volume of water before addition of metal = 12.4 milliliters Volume of water after addition of metal = 14.9 milliliters

The density of the metal should be reported as
a. 7.8444 grams per mL d. 7.8 grams per mL
b. 7.844 grams per mL e. 8 grams per mL
c. 7.84 grams per mL

1993 A
Elemental analysis of an unknown pure substance indicated that the percent