1) What was the primary cause of European colonization?
Primary cause was financial gain (precious metals)
Others causes were religious missions, to escape persecution (religious, ethnic)
2) What were the origins of slavery and the slave trade?
Arabs & Africans had traded slaves for centuries
Europeans caused their slave output to greatly increase b/c slaves were needed in New World to work on farms/plantations
3) What was the economic consequence of Columbus’s discovery?
Spain became very wealthy from precious metals from New World
The Columbian Exchange (transfer of resources, plants, animals, & diseases)
Europe provided markets, capital, & technology
Africa provided labor
New World provided raw materials & farmland
4) How did England’s victory over the Spanish Armada influence English colonization?
Helped ensure English naval dominance in North Atlantic
Nationalism spread throughout England
5) How was the Virginia charter significant and how did it lead to revolution a century and a half later?
First English charter for settlement in New World
Guaranteed overseas settlers same rights as Englishmen
“Rights of Englishmen” lead to revolution a century & a half later
6) What factors contributed to the Virginia Indians’ calamity?
Disease (smallpox, measles killed many Indians)
Disorganization (Indians lacked unity, colonists were well-organized & militarily disciplined)
Disposability (Indians served no economic function for the colonists, who their wanted land)
7) What was the impact on Virginia of tobacco?
Pros: played vital role in putting Virginia on firm economic foundations
Cons: ruinous to soil when planted in successive years, dangerous to rely on one crop b/c of price fluctuations
Began North American slave trade
8) What political precedent was established by Virginia in 1619?
House of Burgesses (first parliament/assembly in America) (resulted in revocation of Virginia Charter by James I, became a royal colony)
9) What religious precedent did Maryland set?
Freedom of worship (became “haven” for Catholics)
Local representative assembly passed Act of Toleration in 1649 (tolerated all Christians)
10) How did sugar affect the Carolinas in contrast to tobacco in Virginia?
Carolina exported food & other supplies to the West Indies (which grew rich from sugar cane)
Virginia grew rich from growing & exporting tobacco
11) What caused Carolina to grow?
Rice became principal export crop in Carolina b/c of good conditions & knowledge of Africans
12) What distinctions did North Carolina and Rhode Island share?
Most democratic, most independent-minded, least aristocratic of original 13 colonies
13) What distinctive features did the Southern colonies share?
Plantation economies (primarily exported agricultural products) (slavery)
Wealth held in hands of few
Permitted some religious toleration
14) What was the Mayflower Compact, and why was it significant?
Simple agreement by Pilgrims to form crude government & to submit to will of majority under regulations agreed upon
Set invaluable precedent for later written constitutions
Step toward genuine self-government
15) How did Massachusetts Bay Colony settlers differ from the original Pilgrims?
Better equipped, brought many more settlers
Mass. Bay Colony settlers were non-Separatist Puritans, Pilgrims were Separatist Puritans
16) What did the Puritans mean by “a city upon a hill”?
A beacon to humanity
Believed they had covenant with God(to build holy society that would be model for humankind)
17) How was the early Massachusetts Bay Colony democratic and at the same time undemocratic?
Democratic b/c all adult male Puritans could vote (Congregational Church)
Undemocratic b/c only Puritans could vote for provincial governor & his assistants
18) What was the Protestant Ethic?
Involved serious commitment to work & to engagement in worldly pursuits
19) How was Anne