New imperialism- coined by the British anti-imperialist John Hobson, reflected a new understanding of the world among segments of Europe, the US, and Japan. These groups came to believe that their countries had a right and even a duty to conquer or control the affairs of societies on other sides of the globe. Not only were they willing to create new empires, they were able due to a significant military advantage over Africa and Asia.
Metropole- British metropolitan center of the British Empire, sometimes used even more specifically to refer to London as the metropole of the British Empire, insofar as its politicians and businessmen determined the economic, diplomatic, and military character of the rest of the Empire. The periphery was the rest of the Empire. Colonized people tried to resist, negotiate with, and subvert the will of the metropole that ruled them.
Scramble for Africa- invasion, occupation, colonization, and annexation of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism. In the late 1800s, 10 percent of Africa was under European control. By the early 1900s, 90 percent of Africa was under European control.
Marxism- based off the writings of political philosopher Karl Marx. Views capitalism as a fundamentally unjust system in which the bourgeoisie exploits the working classes in search of maximized profits. They therefore view history through the lens of struggles between different socioeconomic classes. Forms the foundation for communism, a political theory that advocates public, rather than private, ownership of assets and means of production.
Civilizing mission- rationale for intervention or colonization, proposing to contribute to the spread of civilization, mostly amounting to the Westernization of indigenous peoples
Weapons gap- By the middle of the 19th century, a major military gap between industrialized and nonindustrialized societies that encompassed not only firearms but also tactics and training. This was caused by the development of bolt-action and magazine-fed rifles with longer range, better speed, and greater accuracy than muskets
Man-on-the-spotism- coined by Philip Cutrin, a progression toward colonial acquisition that starts with imperial agents in the periphery, the metropole being informed only after events are concluded. Assumption of British control over Malaysia as described in the account by Sir Frank Swettenham was not ordered from London. It was a local British official who responded to the merchants’ entreaties and decided to take matters into his own hands.
“White Man’s Burden”- published in the popular magazine McClure’s in 1899, written by Rudyard Kipling, originally written for Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee, changed the text to reflect the subject of American colonization of the Philippines, recently won from Spain in the Spanish-American War. Rhetorical command to white men to colonize and rule other nations for the benefit of those people (both the people and the duty represent the “burden” of the title). Imperialists within the USA understood the phrase as a characterization for imperialism that justified the policy as a noble enterprise. Became emblematic both of Eurocentric racism and of Western aspirations to dominate the developing world.
Nationalism – the development of a shared identity by a large group of people as a nation. The emergence of this nationalism sentiment was a common theme of the revolutionary movements
Canton (Or Guangzhoo) system - served as a means for China to control trade with the west within its own country by focusing all trade on the southern port of Canton (now Guangzhou). This system restricted all overseas European trade to the city of Canton
Tanzimat Reforms – internal reforms made by the Ottoman and Russian Empires designed to repress potential fragmentation and meet growing external military and economic challenges coming from Germany and other western countries.