1. How the ancient Greek Polis develop? How did 2 of the greatest of these city-states, Athens and Sparta, shape the experience of the Greek world in its so-called classical age, and how was Greek culture spread throughout much of the Ancient Near East?
The independent city sates that made up AG were small and often under threat. The polis The Greek Polis developed due to Ancient Greeks geographical conditions. They began surfacing in areas that could be defended (next to rocks…etc.). All citizens (adult males of the region) in a polis had to serve in the city’s army because the communities were so small. These Hoplites (soldiers) learned how to work together on the battlefield by forming phalanx and that ability to co-operate in combat translated to the alliance they wanted politically. The citizens believed that since they were risking their lives for their city, that they should have a say in government. Athens is said to have been the richest and most politically developed city in AG; all their citizens were encouraged to hold offices, hold meetings, keep up with current events, and be involved politically. By 500 BCE, Sparta, Athens’ rival, was the greatest military power in AG. During the 400’s BCE, the Greek Classical Age began. The first of the Persian Wars, around 490 BCE, caused these Greek city-states to form an alliance. Even though Sparta refused to join them, they managed to win. Around 480 BCE, the Second Persian war brought Sparta to join the rest of AG, winning the war for them; however, Athens was still seen as the leader. Athens began establishing monuments, such as the Parthenon (a political center and temple), secular views became more prominent, intelligent philosophers, like Socrates, began questioning the world around them, and people began putting their wealth and power towards the creation of literature and arts because they believed that reflected a more developed civilization. The Peloponnesian war brought an end to the Classical Era, when Athens and Sparta (& their allies) fought because Athens seemed guilty of hubris; not surprisingly, Sparta defeated them. During 336-327 BCE, the Hellenistic Age paralleled Greek culture becoming the dominant force over most of the ancient world. Alexander the Great conquered Egypt (establishing Alexandria, Egypt, one of the old world’s greatest center of learning) & Persia and sent armies all the way to India. Greek language became the staple throughout all these areas, as well as Greek customs.
2. How, in basic terms, did the political structure of the Roman Republic work? How, more broadly, did Ancient Rome transition from a Republic governed by people's representatives to an Empire governed by a single man? Be sure to include details such as names and dates Ancient Romans got rid of their king and governed themselves as a republic (for the first 500 years, then it turned into an empire). The upper-class was referred to as the patricians; they were a small group of wealthy families born into their class. The plebeians were the lower class/ everyone else. The patricians got rid of the king and formed themselves into a Senate with an elected leader called a consul. However, around 490 BCE, the plebeians demanded a role in government as well, threatening to leave Rome if they did not get their way (leaving jobs open and the army small). This prompted the patricians to give them an elected body alongside the Senate called the Assembly with an elected leader, as well, called a tribune. AR abided by the 12 tablets, which established the rights and regulations of government and citizens. Around 400 BCE, the Roman conquests were transpiring, resulting in the control of most of Italy. With the desire for wealth connected with trade, AR attacked Carthage, a military superpower in the Punic Wars. AR showed they take no mercy when they completely obliterated Carthage, seizing trade of the western Mediterranean. Hellenistic kingdoms were