Virginia and New England cultures in contrast
-New England- families, relative peace with natives, no interaction with natives, religion centered, minimal disease/pollution, no food shortages after 1st winter, high mortality rates, low immigration rates.
-Virginia-single men, war with natives, high native population, secular, water pollution, food shortages, low mortality, high immigration rate
New England education
-puritans began school age 3 or 4
-essentially universal literacy
-radical minister in Salem
-pushes idea of challenging authority further than anyone before.
-separatist(worse than puritan)
-founder of rhode island (haven for outcasts and radicals)
-first person to advocate full religious liberty
-very intolerant but the way he followed his logic led him to believe in full religious freedom.
-member of John Cotton’s church who says God told her who was saved.
-banished from MA to RI
-murdered during native American siege.
New England women
-social, political, economic, legal inequality
-economy, cultures, religion, politics, gender differ from new England
-native American population more dense than in new England
-80-90% of population was indentured servants.
-Virginians accepted and embraced inequalities
-slavery technically began in 1619 but only after 1660
-language: flapjack, mess, moonshine, skillet, whopper, ah be
-slavery: new but borrowed
Authority Holds on in the South
-freedom is defined by control over other people. The more people you control, the more free you are.
-disdain for work: “killing time”
-conspicuous consumption-liberty enslaves
-hunting, sports, dancing, etiquette
-4:1 male to female ratio and most women were unfree
-theme: still more liberty than England- held land and unmarried
Virginia- profit or prophet?
-Anglican church structure
-more secular than New England but not secular.
17th Century Servitude
Slavery is universal
-Shang dynasty, Mesopotamia, India, Greece, Rome, native America, Middle East, Africa, Brazil
-Slavery is mentioned many times in the Bible
-Greek moralists(Socrates, plato, Aristotle), enlightenment philosophers(Locke, Burke, Voltaire, Montesquieu, Hume) all advocated slavery
Race and Slavery
-race is a historical phenomenon, slavery is not.
-racial slavery does not exist until the 18-19 century and by then it is being abolished
-indentured servitude is almost identical to slavery (slavery is perpetual and hereditary)
Indentured Servant Life
-dominant source of labor from 1660-1700
-white European males
-4-7 years of service
-treated the same as slaves materialistically
-emotionally/psychologically better off than slaves
-12-15 hour days with 2 hour break at midday
-meat rations were very high
-whipping happened once a month
-no marriage and divided from family
-had no hope
British American Relations
-kings and parliament ignored colonies 17th and most of 18th century “salutary neglect”
-England sent convicts to America, also religious radicals.
-mercantilism- England used America and colonists for own benefit.
-Navigation Acts 1651, 1660, 1663
-some colonists benefited anyways (not a lot)
-land grants awarded to investors who begin populating the border area of British French claims (negotiations fail)
-1754 militia was sent to stop French from building Fort Duquesne
-colonists built fort necessity nearby which is taken by the French with assistance from Shawnee, Delaware, Mingo
Sacred cause of Liberty
-French=catholic and British=Protestants
-catholics known for popery or tyranny
-war is fought for liberty from tyranny to bring about the millennium
-God is a god of liberty so fighting off tyrants is a religious as well as a military and political act
-with French threat removed, England becomes the new anti-Christ