France was an absolute monarchy before the French revolution, as it had been for hundreds of years. It meant that the reigning had absolute power. That was what the revolutionists wanted to get rid of.
This also meant that France had 3 estates, the clergy (1st estate), the noble (2nd estate), and the peasants
(3rd estate). The first two estates had a lot of privileges and did not have to pay taxes, even though they were the richest. The revolutionists wanted more equality in France and the abolition of privileges for the clergy and especially the nobles. They wanted a cabinet of minister chosen by the people instead of chosen by the king. They also clamoured for freedom of speech, religion and press. But the revolutionists turned radical and extreme, and instead of wanting a constitutional monarchy, they spiralled down into the region of terror, killing thousands of people including their king and queen.
The revolution resulted, among other things, in the over throw of the bourbon monarchy in France and in the establishment of the first republic. It was created by a number of causes, the most important of which was the inability of the ruling classes of nobles, clergy, and peasants to come to grips